Le Réseau BIO

Plate-forme de réseautage pour les producteurs, transformateurs et commerçants d'aliments biologiques du Québec
Le Réseau BioUn site réalisé grâce à un partenariat
CETAB+ | Centre d'expertise et de transfert en agriculture biologique et de proximitéMinistère de l'Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l'Alimentation du Québec
Bienvenue sur le Réseau BIO, une plate-forme de réseautage pour les producteurs, transformateurs et commerçants d'aliments biologiques et intervenants en agriculture biologique au Québec.

Agrégateur de flux

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. Living Mulch System: Introduction

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 18 Mar 2010).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zis8Hb-VDTo&list=PL8BA51CA166A839E9&index=1

Featuring

Helen Atthowe, BioDesign Farm. Stevensville, MT. 

Audio Text

I’m Helen Atthowe, BioDesign Farm, Stevensville, Montana. The field that we’re in was in hay for about 30 years, and then about eleven years ago, I started doing vegetable production. I had started in Masanobu Fukuoka's approach to minimum till, do-nothing kind of farming. Obviously, Montana was a bit more of a challenge than Japan. So what we’ve done here is tried to mimic the natural systems in Montana with quite a bit more water. We’re doing minimum till, we’re doing living mulches in between the crops so that our residue application is constant, rather than all at once in the spring.

The main crops on this farm are solanaceous crops. Basically we don’t have to market at all because solanaceous crops are hard to grow in Montana. That’s the reason I do it. Eggplants, tomatoes, green and red bell peppers are the main crops here. We throw a little broccoli in, so that we can grow something besides solanaceous crops but mainly, this farm grows solanaceous crops. We sell at Missoula Farmer’s Market and wholesale to local supermarkets in Missoula as well.

The way that I’ve designed this system is minimum labor, so I’m keeping it very small. You can see that I have very wide rows. That’s so I can get my equipment in here and mow. I do very little hand labor. We don’t weed at all. When I say “we” that’s kind of a misnomer. I don’t have as many tasks to do, and so I can run the place myself.


 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3252

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Broccoli

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4SRyB8mBEV8

Featuring

Ron Morse, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA.

Audio Text

On June 3rd, I sowed this field into a bi-culture of foxtail millet and forage soybean. It grew very lush, it was approximately three and a half feet tall. Two months later, on August 3rd, I rolled this with a flail mower that was disengaged and it laid the residues flat. After a few days, I realized that the soybeans were still growing, so 10 days later, we took the flail mower, this time with it engaged and mowed off the growing soybean. As you can see, we have a very nice killed mulch, which should produce a good crop of broccoli without having to manually weed or use herbicides.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3190

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Sweet Potato

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgO3Ns-IMUA&t=11s

Featuring

Danielle Treadwell, Center for Environmental Farming Systems. Goldsboro, NC.
 

Audio Text

We’re developing an organic, no-till, sweet potato production system for our growers here in North Carolina. Compost was applied in the fall. Cover crops were seeded using a Brillion cultipacker, which served two purposes: seeded the cover crops as well as flatten the tops of the hills that were made following compost. In the spring, when vetch was at mid-bloom, the cover crops were killed by rolling with the Brillion cultipacker. Ideally, the cover crops should be rolled in all the same direction for ease of transplant. Over the three years that we’ve been working on this system, the dry matter production of the rye has ranged from 3000-8000 lbs per acre. We’ve found that we get the most weed suppression with an increase in dry weight of rye.

This is the residue remaining sixty days after transplanting sweet potato. Mostly what remains is the rye, although we do have some vetch re-growth. I don’t perceive this to be a problem. We’ve had a fair amount of this residue remaining at harvest, which generally is about 100 days after transplanting for Beauregard.

This area has been hand-weeded three times. These plants are about sixty days old now. They were planted in late-June. The foliage growth that you see here is right about maximum.

These sweet potato transplants are actually sections of vine that are known as slips. Generally they are without roots and they were transplanted using a no-till transplanter designed by Ron Morse of Virginia Tech. The transplants are spaced about ten and a half inches apart and you can see here how the residue was cut with the coulter and slightly moved to the side, but yet it remains fairly well intact and undisturbed following the day of transplant.

One of the biggest concerns for organic growers is weed suppression. Beauregard is the dominant variety for sweet potato growers in our area here in North Carolina, but it’s slow to vine out, so we’re not really convinced that this is the best variety to use. Other varieties such as Jewel are very quick to vine out, but they have less yield than Beauregard. Fernandez might be another option. It has an intermediate vining speed between Beauregard and Jewel. It also has an intermediate yield.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3191

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Potato

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ac4Lo1NgA9c

Featuring

Ron Morse, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

On October 3rd of last year, we sowed cover crops in the no-till plots and in the conventional we left the soil bare. During the winter, the cover crops grew very lush and of course, the conventional was basically just a few weeds. May 6th the soil was prepared in the conventional plot. We took my sub-surface tiller/transplanter, which is equipped to plant into very high residues. A lot of the residues were three, four, five feet high. We planted a twin row of potatoes right through the residues and we put the seed pieces about 5 inches deep in the raised bed and the transplanter virtually knocks over the majority of the residues. After about two and a half to three weeks, we will take a flail mower and keep it quite close to the ground just as the potatoes are emerging through the soil. We’ll then mow off anything that’s still growing. At that point, it basically controls all the living residue. The plants quickly emerge at that stage. In two weeks, you have two beautiful rows of potatoes, about a foot tall. Within another 3-4 weeks, you have complete canopy closure. We will harvest this crop in the next 2-3 weeks. We’ve had great luck with this system. The conventional has not proven to be the best treatment; in fact the no-till has out-yielded the conventional on an average of 17% over the last 8 or 9 years. Another beneficial effect is that no-till mulch controls Colorado Potato Beetle. We’ve seen it year after year. In these thick residues, the Colorado Potato Beetle simply do not thrive in these plots.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3189

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Pumpkin

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gspMfZMbZK4

Featuring

Ron Morse, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

Let me show you why pumpkins are becoming so popular in a no-till system. This is a young pumpkin that’s been set a week or two weeks. And notice that it‘s sitting on this mat of straw. As this thing matures, this mat of straw will stay there of course, and by the time this pumpkin is ready to sell, the quality then will be superior compared to one that is laying on the bare soil. This is a distinct advantage, and a driving force, for no-till pumpkins in the United States.

You always want to make sure you have a very good, uniform, high-density planting of cover crops. Normally, I use rye or rye/vetch, but I was extremely busy and so I didn’t have a field prepared. This year we produced oats and field peas. The amount of residue was three tons per acre. Normally I get up to four or five tons of rye or rye/vetch.

I have cut a section of residues out to show you the depth. Now remember this is oats and field peas and we only had 3 tons. But still you can see a nice, maybe ½” depth of residue. If this were rye or rye/vetch, there’s a possibility it would be almost double that and often times it is up to an inch and that gives you real good weed suppression and fruit quality.

An advantage of the enhanced amount of biomass or resides is that you get improved weed control. If you look in this field here, you’ll see the understory does have a few weeds, but because of the quick canopy closure of the pumpkin, we will still get excellent weed control and all of the weeds that emerge later, they won’t reduce yields.

In this field, the spring oats and field peas, and in some areas of the field we also have Austrian winter peas, were seeded the first week in April. Then grew about four to five feet high. We rolled them approximately the 10th of June. We then waited about three weeks and in the first part of July, we seeded with the Monosem seeder. This is late however; we normally would have seeded earlier. With rye, it tends to mature a little bit faster and so we can get in the field and seed around the middle of June. With oats, it took a while for them to mature, so we have to wait awhile. We plant in two-row systems. As you can see, we probably have a real good crop here, a real good stand.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3188

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2 Equipment Planting Aid

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLgaNJa-kWE

Featuring

Ron Morse, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text 

 Some of the folks make issue with the fact that they can’t afford this transplanter and they want me to develop something small for one to five acres.  The basic no-till planting aid would contain an upfront coulter and some kind of fertilizer knife. At least the larger ones would have a second toolbar or maybe even a third toolbar that would hold either a small seeder or a trash-clearing device. The types of seeder that I have seen work on a toolbar behind a tractor - the cheap Earthway seeder, you can get it for $75-90; there’s a lot of old seeders out there, a lot of John Deere 71 Flex seeders and equivalent types that will seed very well in these situations for a relatively cheap amount of money.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3181

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Biomass Reduced-Till System: Flail Mower/Roller

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tbryhlAb7lQ

Featuring

Ron Morse, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

This is the Alamo Mott flail mower. We’ve been using it for 10 or 15 years on the farm. We originally used it just for flailing. Then, I, by accident one day discovered that it would roll. So we either flail or roll or sometimes both as necessary. What rolls really well is very mature cereal grains, like rye, wheat, barley. We’ve had excellent success year after year with a combination of pure rye or rye/vetch. The millets really roll well. We mix them with soybeans or cowpeas. You have to make sure that the millet and the cowpeas or soybeans are into the mature stage, preferably flowering. If you do that and can roll them with even the flail mower here, they will stay down with very little re-greening. Some legumes also roll very well, like mature crimson clover. Hairy vetch does not because it needs to be crimped. We’re really sold on the combination of flail mowing and rolling. This is economical because it does both. We have had good luck as long as our cover crops are mature.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3177

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Undercutter

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8KW_Do3KjE

Featuring

Nancy Creamer, Center for Environmental Farming Systems. Goldsboro, NC.

Audio Text

The undercutter was designed to kill cover crops and leave them on the surface as a mulch. By leaving cover crop residue intact versus mowing them into smaller pieces, growers can get longer weed suppression from the cover crop mulches. The first tool in the undercutter is this coulter that cuts through the cover crop. A lot of times we use hairy vetch which is quite viney, so we need to really have a clean cut so the rest of the implement can work. The second part of the undercutter is the cutting blade. And this we actually used a motor grader blade upside down and it cuts the whole width of the raised bed about 2” below the soil surface. Finally the last tool on the undercutter is this roller, which is just some notched steel and it just rolls the cover crop down nice and flat as it moves through the field.

There are several existing implements in agriculture that can be modified to do the same job as this, for example, a beet lifter might be used. While this system can work well in lighter soils and with good soil moisture, some further engineering would help it be more applicable with a broader range of soil types and soil moisture conditions. Weed suppression can last about 6 weeks, but it really depends on the thickness of mulch that’s left on the soil surface. Another thing that this system can really benefit from is a cultivator that could work underneath the killed residue if weeds do get out of control later in the season.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3176

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Biomass Reduced-Till System: Sub-Surface Tiller

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CDs19i0SXZc

Featuring

Ron Morse, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

I’m standing in front of the transplanter that we developed here at Virginia Tech. We call it the sub-surface tiller transplanter. Many years ago, as I found out that no-till systems work, we had to do it all by hand. Of course, that’s fine for a small plot, but its impossible for anything commercial. We set out then, to find someone who would make it and no one would. Eventually I began tinkering myself and eventually put together several models. It has two distinct components, the upfront sub-surface tiller part and then the transplanter that trails behind.

This here is the fertilizer coulter and oftentimes, you need an even wider coulter. This one is 20 inches. The residues sometimes are very, very thick and so you have to slice them. But sometimes when you get real high residues it’ll get caught up in this hub and the newer models we sell of the sub-surface tiller transplanter come with a 24-inch coulter. And even sometimes to give better soil loosening capacity, we can put a wavy coulter also back there. That’s what this is here.

This is a fertilizer knife that’s used to loosen the soil. This particular one has a wing on each side, about an inch wide. This, as it works through the soil, loosens it. In a heavy soil or any compacted or rocky soil, this soil-loosening device is absolutely essential. When we plant no-till, organic potatoes, we need a very large, in-row area loosened and we use a shank that’s much more aggressive. It has wings out here about four inches on each side. And when that runs through the soil, it will really loosen the soil. You can put your hand down in it and it’s just like a sand pile. And that’s needed to allow the potato to grow without restriction.

This is the Holland 1600 model transplanter that has been modified to plant in high-residue systems. This double disc coulter up front is used to slice the residues and slice the soil. This is the shoe and inside the shoe we have a little ring that holds the drip tube as it comes through. These are the press wheels. This is not the press wheel that came with the planter. Normal press wheels have the pressure on the outside. We had to reverse that. So we made a very heavy-duty press wheel with inside metal pressure here. That way when soil is loosened and opens it, you press it back with this press wheel.

This is a weight basket. In tight situations, you have to have extra weight for it to close the soil around the plant.

The sub-surface tiller also has the capacity to lay drip tubing. This is the drip-tubing reel that holds about 7000 feet of drip tubing. This then goes down and goes through the transplanter.
 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3156

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Roller-Crimper

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lcwB9h-MCA

Featuring

Ken Fager and Robert Walters. Center for Environmental Farming Systems.  Goldsboro, NC.

Audio Text

This piece of equipment is a roller and it’s a tractor-mounted tool designed to knock over and flatten cover-crop forages. The second purpose of this roller is to intermittently damage the stems of the cover crop, so that they resist the tendency to spring back to the original, vertical position. The damage, also known as a crimp, renders the forages vulnerable to desiccation and permanent wilt. The third purpose of the roller is to position the forages in one direction so that planting is facilitated without dragging in tangled stems and leaves.

We’re not sure exactly who invented it, but we do know, or it’s been reported that it has been in use in Latin America, particularly the countries of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay as a residue management tool by subsistence growers there in conservation tillage systems.

This roller/crimper was custom-built by the Kelly Manufacturing Company for North Carolina State University. It is not an implement that you can go out and purchase on the market. Most growers who have a shop and some mechanical ability can build one of these just like this.

The crimping action of the roller/crimper is dependent on three factors. First and foremost, the weight of the roller itself. This is all constructed of heavy-gauge steel, however there is an ability with this roller to add water to the drum and thus increase the ballast and therefore the down pressure. Another factor is the lift mechanism. The three point hitch, we found, needs to be in a lowered position, so that you maximize the down pressure on the parallel linkages and on the drum as it rolls across the surface. Now ground speed is also important, and we’re not exactly sure what the ideal ground speed is. But we feel that a speed of somewhere between three and six miles per hour would be optimum for maximizing crimping action of the roller. One of the unique design features of this roller/crimper is the incorporation of a set of parallel linkages that serve to pivot the roller/crimper drum vertically as it moves across the soil surface.

Normally when one’s trying to kill a cover crop, one would look for flowering in the cover before trying to roll kill it. The millet standing here before me, most of it has either flowered 2 weeks ago or is currently flowering. Consequently it would be a good time to roll it.

This is what the pearl millet mulch looks like after it's been rolled and crimped. You can see we have a nice layer of living mulch. The stems and the roots are intact and it’s lying prostrate on the surface, which is what we want.

We’ve never actually tried to roll and crimp pearl millet. This is the first time. We are getting some crimping action on the stems as well, although not as much as we’d like to see and we expect to get on other small grains like rye and foxtail millet. But the crimping is quite evident and the stem is broken, which is what we want. This will make it very easy for us to come back in here afterwards and run the no-till transplanter through this field and set our plants.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 1431

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Problem Situations

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDC11FVP3NM

Featuring

Ron Morse, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

I don’t want to lead you astray, that no-till systems works perfectly under all conditions, because this is not true. Soil type can be a major factor. You’d need to have well-drained fields if you’re going to try no-tillage. Heavy clay soil is one to be skeptical about and to be aware that you probably then have to use raised beds. If you needed earliness, you would not grow it no-till. You would use black plastic in order to enhance earliness. If you lived in the northern states or Canada, you probably would want strip-tillage, in which you would till an area about eight to ten inches wide that would allow you to get in the field earlier and warm up the soil.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3300

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Nutrient Management

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5xI74qdNSY0

Featuring

Ron Morse. Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

Nutrient Management

The first source of fertility is derived from our bi-culture cover crops. The second source would be a side dressing of feather meal or soybean meal. The third nutrient source is our liquid fertilizers, like Neptune’s Harvest that we inject through the drip irrigation system. And the final source is the use of compost, leaf mulch, and aged manures that we have applied and will continue to apply on the beds.

The long-term goal for organic growers is to build up organic soil fertility by increasing active soil organic matter. Using high residue, no-till, cover cropping systems is the best way to increase active soil organic matter. Active soil organic matter is like a savings account thus requiring less applied fertilizer amendments. A good example of that is this corn field. These plots have not been plowed. We’ve had a continuous series of cover crops, followed by vegetable crops, now in its eighth year. Because we haven’t tilled the soil very deeply, we see a very strong granulation and a build-up of soil organic matter. This beautiful crop of corn received only 50 units of nitrogen, but we’re getting nice yields because we have built up the active soil organic matter over time using these organic systems and that pool releases nitrogen to the plant as needed.
 

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3299

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Rotational Tillage Options

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEC6uq3cvHw

Featuring

Ron Morse. Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

Rotational Tillage Option

There are two options to rotational tillage. One is to either purchase a no-till drill or borrowing or renting a spading machine. They are very effective in incorporating residues without disturbing the surface. They do leave a relatively good seed bed that would allow you to get a good stand.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3298

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Rotational Tillage Strategies

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YmQib3aOyak

Featuring

Ron Morse, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

Rotational Tillage

After the vegetable crop is grown, you will lightly till your no-till bed to enable you to produce the next cover crop, get a good stand, and also incorporate the residues of your vegetable crop, which often times will improve disease management. Here we’ve taken a rotivator and tilled approximately two to three inches deep to loosen the soil and also incorporate residue from the last vegetable crop. It’s really a compromise; by doing what we’ve done, we’ve probably reduced somewhat the soil organic matter. On the upside, by tilling it, we’re able to get a very nice cover crop, which will enable us to pour in a lot of biomass. Often times, you need to lightly till in order to get a good stand of cover crop.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3297

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Weed Management Introduction

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gmc8zZnBLns

Featuring

Ron Morse. Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, VA. 

Audio Text

Weed Management

High residue mulch, living or dead, improves weed suppression by capturing growth inputs, particularly light. We want the plants to basically germinate very quickly and close the canopy. Drip irrigation is also a very useful weed control strategy. Placing water near the roots of the vegetable crops and not irrigating the adjacent weeds, we have found it to be very efficient. In some cases, you have such a serious weed infestation, that before you enter into a no-till system, it’s probably beneficial to spend a year or even two years to grow cover crops that are known to minimize weed pressure. Two of the crops that we have used successfully are sorghum-sudangrass and also buckwheat.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

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Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Cover Crop Compatibility

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M9m2oGL_VI0

Featuring

Mark Schonbeck. Virginia Association for Biological Farming. Floyd, VA. 

Audio Text

Compatibility
Another important thing that we’re looking at is what I call compatibility. And that is that any cover crop and its residues are going to affect the next vegetable in a number of different ways. One is how cool do they keep the soil and how moist do they keep the soil? Is this favorable or unfavorable. Another one is allelopathy. Any crop residue has a specific set of chemicals that it gives off, that it will favor some plants and it will suppress others. And finally, there’s a microbiological effect that’s becoming more and more well known. Every plant species puts somewhere between 10-30% of its photosynthate, its solar energy converted to biomass, goes out into the soil as soluble food. And that’s feeding a range of organisms and different species of plants favor different ranges of organisms. That is partially responsible for the rotation effect.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3295

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Winter-Killed Cover Crops Part 2

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wGGoiQbeXFw&amp=&hl=en&amp=&fs=1

Featuring

Mark Schonbeck. Virginia Association for Biological Farming. Floyd, VA. 

  Audio Text

Mow-killing or roll-killing requires a fairly precise time, you have to wait until the crop has bloomed, but hasn’t set mature seed. Whereas these crops, we don’t care if they’re vegetative or if they’re flowering, or if you can roll them or not. The old man winter is going to do it. And we have two strategies. One is to plant a really tender, fast-growing, tropical, heat-loving crop in the middle of the summer, and at the first hint of frost, it’s dead.

Semi-hardy Cover Crops

Another strategy is at the end of summer, plant crops that are semi-hardy, things like black oats and purple vetch. These two cover crops will fairly reliably frost-kill at twenty degrees. One of the things that has happened is that farmers in Virginia and some of the warmer climates and even as far north as Kentucky, have observed that when they plant oats as a winter-kill crop, that some of it will come through and be growing in the spring when they wanted a dead mulch. These two are just a little bit less frost hardy than the spring oats and the Lana vetch, which have been our standard cool-season semi-hardy crop. We’re going to look at them in comparison and see if these are more reliable about forming a dead mulch.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 3294

Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Winter-Killed Cover Crops Part 1

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 17 Dec 2008).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikjib9lQSNg&amp=&hl=en&amp=&fs=1

Featuring

Mark Schonbeck. Virginia Association for Biological Farming. Floyd, VA. 

  Audio Text

Winter-Killed Cover Crops

What we have here are some cover crops that were planted in the middle of July, with the objective of growing a lot of biomass and then allowing it to frost-kill. The advantage to this is that it leaves a mulch in place at the end of winter, so that a farmer can plant early spring vegetable crops without tillage. So many of the systems that have been studied and researched and developed and utilized, involve either an over-winter cover crop, which is suitable for May and June planting of vegetables, or an early summer cover crop, which is mowed or rolled about this time of year for late summer and fall crops. And what this opens up is the possibility of planting no-till peas, onions, spinach, lettuce, early broccoli, early cabbage, in the early spring. Another advantage of this system, is you’re not depending on being able to mechanically kill. That means farmers who are operating on a small scale with limited resources and only have a limited range of equipment, don’t have to worry, “How am I going to mow or roll this thing down so it won’t come back?” because the winter will take care of it.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

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Video Clip: Weed Em and Reap Part 2. High Residue Reduced-Till System: Strip-Seeded Cover Crops

Source:

Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2: Reduced tillage strategies for vegetable cropping systems [DVD]. A. Stone. 2006. Oregon State University Dept. of Horticulture. Corvallis, Oregon. Available at: http://www.weedemandreap.org (verified 18 Mar 2010).

 

This is a Weed 'Em and Reap Part 2 video clip.

Watch video clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e6JiY-WnTw8&amp=&hl=en&amp=&fs=1

Featuring

Ron Morse. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.

Audio Text

What we do, we plant different cover crops in strips to accommodate the need for nitrogen as well as weed control. In the center and also on the two borders, we plant a grass crop, Sudex or sorghum-sudangrass. This is a type of crop that grows very tall and produces a large amount of biomass and is known to control weeds very effectively. Then next to the Sudex, we planted sunn hemp or Crotalaria and this sunn hemp is a leguminous crop and produces large amounts of nitrogen. One of the disadvantages of sunn hemp is the seed is very costly, up to $4 per pound. Other legume crops that could be grown are cowpeas or forage soybean. In this particular system, these are summer cover crops and they will winter kill and leave the biomass for the following spring.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

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