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Nutrient Requirements of Organic Poultry

mar, 2018/05/15 - 17:40

eOrganic author:

Dr. Jacquie Jacob Ph.D., University of Kentuckky

Introduction

As with all animals, poultry species have specific nutritional needs. The nutrient requirements of a flock are determined by several factors:

  • Genetics (species, breed, or strain). Different species (e.g., chickens, turkeys, ducks) have different average body sizes, growth rates, and production levels. They also differ in how efficient they are at digesting and absorbing different feed ingredients. Even within a species there can be differences among breeds (e.g., meat chickens versus egg-laying hens).
     
  • Age. Nutrient requirements are influenced by body weight and life stage (e.g., starter, growing, egg-laying).
     
  • Sex. The nutrient requirements of male and female birds are similar at hatch but differences develop as the flock gets older, when males consume more than females.
     
  • Reproductive state. The level of egg production in hens, and sexual activity in males, affects nutrient requirements of the flock.
     
  • Environmental temperature. Poultry have increased energy requirements in cold weather, as more energy is needed to maintain normal body temperature. Conversely, energy requirements decrease in hot weather.
     
  • Management system. Housing design influences the level of activity of the flock, and therefore its energy requirements.
     
  • Health status. Flocks dealing with disease may benefit from increased dietary vitamin levels.
     
  • Production aims. The nutrient composition of the poultry diet varies according to production aims, which can include optimal weight gain or carcass composition, as well as egg numbers or egg size. 

Commercially prepared organic feeds are available for the specific type and age of bird in production. It is important to provide the right type of feed. Feeding a layer ration, which is high in calcium and lower in protein, to young birds can cause serious health issues. Or, feeding a starter/grower feed to laying hens will drastically reduce egg production.

Flocks with access to pasture may supplement their diets with greens and insects, depending on the quality of the pasture. A flock will quickly devour the greens within an enclosed area, so pasture rotation is essential to maintain forage quality.

Energy

Poultry consume feed to meet their energy requirements, assuming that the diet is adequate in essential nutrients, so their daily feed intake will depend on the energy content of the diet. A high density feed has a high energy level. Since the flock will consume less feed, the nutrients must be more concentrated in the amount of feed they will consume in a day. Similarly, a low density diet has a low energy level, and the flock will consume more of the feed daily. The required levels of the different nutrients will depend on the energy level of the diet.

Energy is not a nutrient, but rather a property of energy-yielding nutrients such as carbohydrates or fats. Not all the energy in a feed ingredient is used completely. The energy value of a feed ingredient is typically expressed as metabolizable energy (ME). The ME is the gross energy content of the feed ingredient minus the gross energy lost in the feces and urine. Stated another way, ME is calculated as the energy coming in one end and the energy going out the other end. The energy levels are expressed as kilocalories of ME per kilogram or pound.

Protein

Dietary protein requirements are actually requirements for the amino acids that make up the protein. There are 22 amino acids in body proteins, all of which are physiologically required. Some of the amino acids can be produced from other amino acids and are considered non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that poultry cannot produce, or cannot produce in sufficient quantities. The two main essential amino acids that impact poultry fed a corn-soybean meal diet are methionine plus cystine (referred to as the sulfur amino acids) and lysine. The other essential amino acids may become deficient when other feed ingredients are used. When using alternative feed ingredients, therefore, it may be necessary to evaluate levels of arginine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, tryptophan or valine.

Specific Nutrient Requirements

A National Research Council (NRC) publication on the nutrient requirements of poultry was published in 1994. Although the information is over 20 years old, it is still referred to today. However, the fast growth rates and production levels of today's poultry stocks have warranted a modification of the nutrient requirement profiles. Furthermore, the criteria used for developing nutrient requirements have changed. The NRC requirements were developed with maximum production as the main assessment criterion. Today, additional criteria have become important, including maximum health and welfare and minimal environmental impact.

Nutrient requirements of growing meat-type chickens (broilers)

Nutrient requirements for growing replacement pullets

Nutrient requirements for egg laying chickens

Nutrient requirements for growing turkeys

Nutrient requirements for meat-type ducks

Nutrient requirements for egg laying ducks

Nutrient requirements for dual-purpose breeds such as Barred Plymouth Rock and Rhode Island Red have not yet been developed.

References and Citations

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 7888

Nutrient Requirements of Organic Poultry

mar, 2018/05/15 - 17:40

eOrganic author:

Dr. Jacquie Jacob Ph.D., University of Kentuckky

Introduction

As with all animals, poultry species have specific nutritional needs. The nutrient requirements of a flock are determined by several factors:

  • Genetics (species, breed, or strain). Different species (e.g., chickens, turkeys, ducks) have different average body sizes, growth rates, and production levels. They also differ in how efficient they are at digesting and absorbing different feed ingredients. Even within a species there can be differences among breeds (e.g., meat chickens versus egg-laying hens).
     
  • Age. Nutrient requirements are influenced by body weight and life stage (e.g., starter, growing, egg-laying).
     
  • Sex. The nutrient requirements of male and female birds are similar at hatch but differences develop as the flock gets older, when males consume more than females.
     
  • Reproductive state. The level of egg production in hens, and sexual activity in males, affects nutrient requirements of the flock.
     
  • Environmental temperature. Poultry have increased energy requirements in cold weather, as more energy is needed to maintain normal body temperature. Conversely, energy requirements decrease in hot weather.
     
  • Management system. Housing design influences the level of activity of the flock, and therefore its energy requirements.
     
  • Health status. Flocks dealing with disease may benefit from increased dietary vitamin levels.
     
  • Production aims. The nutrient composition of the poultry diet varies according to production aims, which can include optimal weight gain or carcass composition, as well as egg numbers or egg size. 

Commercially prepared organic feeds are available for the specific type and age of bird in production. It is important to provide the right type of feed. Feeding a layer ration, which is high in calcium and lower in protein, to young birds can cause serious health issues. Or, feeding a starter/grower feed to laying hens will drastically reduce egg production.

Flocks with access to pasture may supplement their diets with greens and insects, depending on the quality of the pasture. A flock will quickly devour the greens within an enclosed area, so pasture rotation is essential to maintain forage quality.

Energy

Poultry consume feed to meet their energy requirements, assuming that the diet is adequate in essential nutrients, so their daily feed intake will depend on the energy content of the diet. A high density feed has a high energy level. Since the flock will consume less feed, the nutrients must be more concentrated in the amount of feed they will consume in a day. Similarly, a low density diet has a low energy level, and the flock will consume more of the feed daily. The required levels of the different nutrients will depend on the energy level of the diet.

Energy is not a nutrient, but rather a property of energy-yielding nutrients such as carbohydrates or fats. Not all the energy in a feed ingredient is used completely. The energy value of a feed ingredient is typically expressed as metabolizable energy (ME). The ME is the gross energy content of the feed ingredient minus the gross energy lost in the feces and urine. Stated another way, ME is calculated as the energy coming in one end and the energy going out the other end. The energy levels are expressed as kilocalories of ME per kilogram or pound.

Protein

Dietary protein requirements are actually requirements for the amino acids that make up the protein. There are 22 amino acids in body proteins, all of which are physiologically required. Some of the amino acids can be produced from other amino acids and are considered non-essential. Essential amino acids are those that poultry cannot produce, or cannot produce in sufficient quantities. The two main essential amino acids that impact poultry fed a corn-soybean meal diet are methionine plus cystine (referred to as the sulfur amino acids) and lysine. The other essential amino acids may become deficient when other feed ingredients are used. When using alternative feed ingredients, therefore, it may be necessary to evaluate levels of arginine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, tryptophan or valine.

Specific Nutrient Requirements

A National Research Council (NRC) publication on the nutrient requirements of poultry was published in 1994. Although the information is over 20 years old, it is still referred to today. However, the fast growth rates and production levels of today's poultry stocks have warranted a modification of the nutrient requirement profiles. Furthermore, the criteria used for developing nutrient requirements have changed. The NRC requirements were developed with maximum production as the main assessment criterion. Today, additional criteria have become important, including maximum health and welfare and minimal environmental impact.

Nutrient requirements of growing meat-type chickens (broilers)

Nutrient requirements for growing replacement pullets

Nutrient requirements for egg laying chickens

Nutrient requirements for growing turkeys

Nutrient requirements for meat-type ducks

Nutrient requirements for egg laying ducks

Nutrient requirements for dual-purpose breeds such as Barred Plymouth Rock and Rhode Island Red have not yet been developed.

References and Citations

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 7888

Nutrient Requirements for Organic Meat-type Ducks

mar, 2018/05/15 - 17:39

eOrganic author:

Dr. Jacquie Jacob Ph.D., University of Kentucky

Introduction

Compared to chickens, very little research has been done on the nutritional requirement of ducks. The nutrient requirements of growing meat-type ducks are reported to be similar to growing chickens. However, when formulating duck diets it is not possible to use amino acid availability and metabolizable energy content determined with chickens. As with chickens, supplementing duck diets with feed enzymes improves nutrient utilization. Also, ducks are better able to digest fiber than chickens so the metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs are typically 5-6% greater than the values obtained using chickens. It is best to give the feed as pellets or crumbles. Pelleting is most economical. Pellets can make a savings of 15-20% in the feed required to raise a duck to market weight, primarily due to reduced feed wastage.

Ducks are one of the fastest growing and most efficient producers of animal protein. The commercial duck meat industry are typically growing White Pekin, White Muscovy or White Mule ducks. Mule ducks are a cross between muscovy and pekin ducks and their offsprings are sterile). White Pekins typically reach a market weight of 7-8 pounds (3.2 - 3.6 kg) in about 8 weeks. Muscovies are marketed at 10-17 weeks of age. Mule ducks are typically marketed at the same time as muscovies.

Ducks tend to produce fatty carcasses. When formulating diets for meat diets it is important to pay attention to the protein to energy balance. The higher protein diets relative to energy generally result in less carcass fat.

Typical growth curves for Pekin, Muscovy and Mule ducks, most commonly used meat ducks, are shown below. As shown in the graphs, the growth curves for the three type of males are very similar. The differences are more pronounced in the females.

  

Typical feed efficiencies for Pekin, Muscovy and Mule ducks are shown below. Feed efficiencies are calculated as weight of feed consumed divided by body weight gain for the same period. As such, the lower the number the better the feed conversion can be achieved.

Although the growth curves are similar for all three types of ducks, there are considerable differences in feed conversion. The more efficient mule ducks are commonly raised for duck meat production in Europe.

 

Young ducklings can have access to pasture around 3-4 weeks of age. Ducks are not as good foragers as geese but the use of range will save on some of the feed required. The use of pasture is not required and it can be economical to raise ducks without pasture access.

Muscovy and mule ducks

Based on 2012 research (Baéza et al., 2012), the recommended protein levels for starting (0-3 weeks), growing (4-7 weeks) and finishing (8-10 weeks) diets for mule ducks are 23.5, 15.4, and 13.8% crude protein, respectively. The diets contained 2895 kcal ME/kg (1315 kcal ME/lb). Similar diets can be fed to Muscovy ducks.

Pekin ducks

Research conducted at Purdue University has resulted in recommended the following nutrient levels for commercially-raised white pekin ducks gorwn to 42 days of age.

Nutrient requirements of Pekin ducks:

NUTRIENT

STARTER (0-2 wks)

GROWER-FINISHER (2-6 wks) 23% CP 20.5% CP 17.5% CP 15.0% CP ME, Kcal/kg 2825 2875 3050 3075 ME, Kcal/lb 1280 1300 1385 1400 Methionine, % 0.60 0.55 0.45 0.30 Methionine + cysteine, % 0.95 0.85 0.75 0.60 Lysine, % 1.20 0.96 0.86 0.78 Calcium, % 1.20 1.00 0.90 0.80 Available phosphorus, % 0.60 0.55 0.45 0.30

Based on results from various research reports (Leeson and Summers, 2005)

References

Baéza, E., M.D. Bernadet and M. Lessire. 2012. Protein requirements for growth, feed efficiency, and meat production in growing mule ducks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 21(1):21-32

Leeson, S. and J.D. Summers. 2005. Commercial poultry nutrition, third edition. University Books, Guelph, Ontario.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 7895

Nutrient Requirements for Organic Meat-type Ducks

mar, 2018/05/15 - 17:39

eOrganic author:

Dr. Jacquie Jacob Ph.D., University of Kentucky

Introduction

Compared to chickens, very little research has been done on the nutritional requirement of ducks. The nutrient requirements of growing meat-type ducks are reported to be similar to growing chickens. However, when formulating duck diets it is not possible to use amino acid availability and metabolizable energy content determined with chickens. As with chickens, supplementing duck diets with feed enzymes improves nutrient utilization. Also, ducks are better able to digest fiber than chickens so the metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs are typically 5-6% greater than the values obtained using chickens. It is best to give the feed as pellets or crumbles. Pelleting is most economical. Pellets can make a savings of 15-20% in the feed required to raise a duck to market weight, primarily due to reduced feed wastage.

Ducks are one of the fastest growing and most efficient producers of animal protein. The commercial duck meat industry are typically growing White Pekin, White Muscovy or White Mule ducks. Mule ducks are a cross between muscovy and pekin ducks and their offsprings are sterile). White Pekins typically reach a market weight of 7-8 pounds (3.2 - 3.6 kg) in about 8 weeks. Muscovies are marketed at 10-17 weeks of age. Mule ducks are typically marketed at the same time as muscovies.

Ducks tend to produce fatty carcasses. When formulating diets for meat diets it is important to pay attention to the protein to energy balance. The higher protein diets relative to energy generally result in less carcass fat.

Typical growth curves for Pekin, Muscovy and Mule ducks, most commonly used meat ducks, are shown below. As shown in the graphs, the growth curves for the three type of males are very similar. The differences are more pronounced in the females.

  

Typical feed efficiencies for Pekin, Muscovy and Mule ducks are shown below. Feed efficiencies are calculated as weight of feed consumed divided by body weight gain for the same period. As such, the lower the number the better the feed conversion can be achieved.

Although the growth curves are similar for all three types of ducks, there are considerable differences in feed conversion. The more efficient mule ducks are commonly raised for duck meat production in Europe.

 

Young ducklings can have access to pasture around 3-4 weeks of age. Ducks are not as good foragers as geese but the use of range will save on some of the feed required. The use of pasture is not required and it can be economical to raise ducks without pasture access.

Muscovy and mule ducks

Based on 2012 research (Baéza et al., 2012), the recommended protein levels for starting (0-3 weeks), growing (4-7 weeks) and finishing (8-10 weeks) diets for mule ducks are 23.5, 15.4, and 13.8% crude protein, respectively. The diets contained 2895 kcal ME/kg (1315 kcal ME/lb). Similar diets can be fed to Muscovy ducks.

Pekin ducks

Research conducted at Purdue University has resulted in recommended the following nutrient levels for commercially-raised white pekin ducks gorwn to 42 days of age.

Nutrient requirements of Pekin ducks:

NUTRIENT

STARTER (0-2 wks)

GROWER-FINISHER (2-6 wks) 23% CP 20.5% CP 17.5% CP 15.0% CP ME, Kcal/kg 2825 2875 3050 3075 ME, Kcal/lb 1280 1300 1385 1400 Methionine, % 0.60 0.55 0.45 0.30 Methionine + cysteine, % 0.95 0.85 0.75 0.60 Lysine, % 1.20 0.96 0.86 0.78 Calcium, % 1.20 1.00 0.90 0.80 Available phosphorus, % 0.60 0.55 0.45 0.30

Based on results from various research reports (Leeson and Summers, 2005)

References

Baéza, E., M.D. Bernadet and M. Lessire. 2012. Protein requirements for growth, feed efficiency, and meat production in growing mule ducks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 21(1):21-32

Leeson, S. and J.D. Summers. 2005. Commercial poultry nutrition, third edition. University Books, Guelph, Ontario.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 7895

May 2018

ven, 2018/05/11 - 15:58
Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinars

The first webinar in the Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series with Mark Schonbeck and Diana Jerkins of the Organic Farming Research Foundation took place on Wednesday but you can still register for the 8 remaining webinars in the series here. The next one, on Weed Management: An Ecological Approach, takes place on June 13th. By request, we've also created a new help guide for attendees who have trouble getting connected or listening in! You can find it here. The recording of the first presentation should be up on the eOrganic YouTube channel by next Thursday.

CCOF Webinar on Crop Insurance

Organic and diversified farms now have a crop insurance option through USDA’s new the Whole Farm Revenue Protection (WFRP) program, as well as disaster assistance options through the Farm Service Agency. Join the CCOF Foundation and California FarmLink for a webinar on June 19, 2018 to find out how WFRP and other risk management programs address the needs of organic and diversified farms. Register at https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/247841306511023362

Oregon Tilth Farmer Mentorship Program

If you are farming in Oregon, Idaho or Washington, you can still sign up for the year-long Oregon Tilth farmer-to-farmer mentorship program to support peer-led, experience-based learning for new and transitioning organic practitioners. Participants in the program are paired based on several criteria — organic expertise, farm size, production type, and location — to match complimentary learning goals and skills. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis, and there are still slots available for the 2018 season.Find out more about this program, which offers benefits for both mentors and mentees, and fill out your application at https://tilth.org/education/farmer-mentorship-program/

Utah State University Pasture Field Day on June 7

On Thursday, June 7, 2018, Utah State University Extension is hosting a pasture field day at the Lewiston pasture research facility. Come get an update on research being conducted in the areas of plant identification and selection for pastures, measuring available forage, nutrient leaching, and estimating animal intake. If you are interested in going, please pre-register at https://www.eventbrite.com/e/usu-pasture-field-day-heifer-development-and-pasture-management-in-grazing-systems-tickets-45490990778?utm_term=eventname_text

Seed Economics Toolkit: Economic Risk Management for Organic Seed Growers

The lack of adequate quantities of organic seed is recognized as a weak link in organic production and has resulted in ongoing exemptions to the National Organic Program’s (NOP) organic seed requirement. While organic seed production is a developing industry and a viable economic opportunity for organic growers, there is uncertainty and risk. In particular, seed growers may desire mentorship in enterprise budgeting, record keeping, and marketing strategy. This online toolkit aims to help the industry scale up organic seed production, increase profits for growers, and build the supply of organic seed nationally through increasing growers' knowledge by making tools and examples available for enterprise budgeting, inventory management, foundation and stock seed planning, and contracting. Find links to the tools and watch the presentations from the 2018 Seed Economics Intensive at the Organic Seed Growers Conference at http://articles.extension.org/pages/74676

Organic Farmers Association

The Organic Farmers Association was formed in 2016 to be a voice for organic farmers at the national level. Their membership is made up of domestic, certified organic producers as well as supporting individuals and organizations. The organization is supported by the Rodale Institute, and has recruited many experienced organic farming leaders. Farming members vote on pressing policy issues, and each farm receives one vote no matter its size, and policy positions are presented to elected officials in Washington, D.C. A recent article in the MOSES Organic Broadcaster by Jim Riddle describes the organization  in more detail and you can also find out more information and learn how to join at OrganicFarmersAssociation.org.

Our Farms, Our Future Podcast

SARE has a new podcast: Our Farms, Our Future, which brings together the sustainable agriculture community for thought-provoking conversations about the state of agriculture, how we got here, and where we're headed. With each episode they hope to share different perspectives within the sustainable agriculture community while tackling such topics as building resilient farming systems, farm profitability, and fostering community through local food systems. The latest podcast features Amy Garrett and Ron Rosmann discussing water challenges and dry farming. Find the podcast here.

Farming with Walk-behind Tractors: Kerr Center Report

A new report from retired Horticulture Manager George Kuepper covers his and the Kerr Center’s decade of experience using walk-behind tractors. The report serves as a resource for people trying to decide whether two-wheel tractors are a fit for their own operations. It also works as a basic how-to manual, offering tips on the use of several implements: rototillers, crimper/rollers, hay rakes, and three types each of plows and mowers. The report is extensively illustrated, with diagrams showing plowing patterns and suggested approaches to hitching and unhitching different implements. The report is available as a downloadable PDF for $5.00. More details and information are available at http://kerrcenter.com/publication/farming-walk-behind-tractors/

eOrganic Mission and Resources

eOrganic is a web community where organic agriculture farmers, researchers, and educators network; exchange objective, research- and experience-based information; learn together; and communicate regionally, nationally, and internationally. If you have expertise in organic agriculture and would like to develop U.S. certified organic agriculture information, join us at http://eorganic.info

Find all eOrganic articles, videos and webinars at http://extension.org/organic_production

Connect with eOrganic on;Facebook and Twitter and subscribe to our YouTube channel!

Have a question about organic farming? Use the eXtension Ask an Expert service to connect with the eOrganic community to get an answer!

eOrganic logo

 

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 25354

May 2018

ven, 2018/05/11 - 15:58
Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinars

The first webinar in the Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series with Mark Schonbeck and Diana Jerkins of the Organic Farming Research Foundation took place on Wednesday but you can still register for the 8 remaining webinars in the series here. The next one, on Weed Management: An Ecological Approach, takes place on June 13th. By request, we've also created a new help guide for attendees who have trouble getting connected or listening in! You can find it here. The recording of the first presentation should be up on the eOrganic YouTube channel by next Thursday.

CCOF Webinar on Crop Insurance

Organic and diversified farms now have a crop insurance option through USDA’s new the Whole Farm Revenue Protection (WFRP) program, as well as disaster assistance options through the Farm Service Agency. Join the CCOF Foundation and California FarmLink for a webinar on June 19, 2018 to find out how WFRP and other risk management programs address the needs of organic and diversified farms. Register at https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/247841306511023362

Oregon Tilth Farmer Mentorship Program

If you are farming in Oregon, Idaho or Washington, you can still sign up for the year-long Oregon Tilth farmer-to-farmer mentorship program to support peer-led, experience-based learning for new and transitioning organic practitioners. Participants in the program are paired based on several criteria — organic expertise, farm size, production type, and location — to match complimentary learning goals and skills. Applications are accepted on a rolling basis, and there are still slots available for the 2018 season.Find out more about this program, which offers benefits for both mentors and mentees, and fill out your application at https://tilth.org/education/farmer-mentorship-program/

Utah State University Pasture Field Day on June 7

On Thursday, June 7, 2018, Utah State University Extension is hosting a pasture field day at the Lewiston pasture research facility. Come get an update on research being conducted in the areas of plant identification and selection for pastures, measuring available forage, nutrient leaching, and estimating animal intake. If you are interested in going, please pre-register at https://www.eventbrite.com/e/usu-pasture-field-day-heifer-development-and-pasture-management-in-grazing-systems-tickets-45490990778?utm_term=eventname_text

Seed Economics Toolkit: Economic Risk Management for Organic Seed Growers

The lack of adequate quantities of organic seed is recognized as a weak link in organic production and has resulted in ongoing exemptions to the National Organic Program’s (NOP) organic seed requirement. While organic seed production is a developing industry and a viable economic opportunity for organic growers, there is uncertainty and risk. In particular, seed growers may desire mentorship in enterprise budgeting, record keeping, and marketing strategy. This online toolkit aims to help the industry scale up organic seed production, increase profits for growers, and build the supply of organic seed nationally through increasing growers' knowledge by making tools and examples available for enterprise budgeting, inventory management, foundation and stock seed planning, and contracting. Find links to the tools and watch the presentations from the 2018 Seed Economics Intensive at the Organic Seed Growers Conference at http://articles.extension.org/pages/74676

Organic Farmers Association

The Organic Farmers Association was formed in 2016 to be a voice for organic farmers at the national level. Their membership is made up of domestic, certified organic producers as well as supporting individuals and organizations. The organization is supported by the Rodale Institute, and has recruited many experienced organic farming leaders. Farming members vote on pressing policy issues, and each farm receives one vote no matter its size, and policy positions are presented to elected officials in Washington, D.C. A recent article in the MOSES Organic Broadcaster by Jim Riddle describes the organization  in more detail and you can also find out more information and learn how to join at OrganicFarmersAssociation.org.

Our Farms, Our Future Podcast

SARE has a new podcast: Our Farms, Our Future, which brings together the sustainable agriculture community for thought-provoking conversations about the state of agriculture, how we got here, and where we're headed. With each episode they hope to share different perspectives within the sustainable agriculture community while tackling such topics as building resilient farming systems, farm profitability, and fostering community through local food systems. The latest podcast features Amy Garrett and Ron Rosmann discussing water challenges and dry farming. Find the podcast here.

Farming with Walk-behind Tractors: Kerr Center Report

A new report from retired Horticulture Manager George Kuepper covers his and the Kerr Center’s decade of experience using walk-behind tractors. The report serves as a resource for people trying to decide whether two-wheel tractors are a fit for their own operations. It also works as a basic how-to manual, offering tips on the use of several implements: rototillers, crimper/rollers, hay rakes, and three types each of plows and mowers. The report is extensively illustrated, with diagrams showing plowing patterns and suggested approaches to hitching and unhitching different implements. The report is available as a downloadable PDF for $5.00. More details and information are available at http://kerrcenter.com/publication/farming-walk-behind-tractors/

eOrganic Mission and Resources

eOrganic is a web community where organic agriculture farmers, researchers, and educators network; exchange objective, research- and experience-based information; learn together; and communicate regionally, nationally, and internationally. If you have expertise in organic agriculture and would like to develop U.S. certified organic agriculture information, join us at http://eorganic.info

Find all eOrganic articles, videos and webinars at http://extension.org/organic_production

Connect with eOrganic on;Facebook and Twitter and subscribe to our YouTube channel!

Have a question about organic farming? Use the eXtension Ask an Expert service to connect with the eOrganic community to get an answer!

eOrganic logo

 

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 25354

Conducting On-Farm Variety Trials to Manage Risk for Organic and Specialty Crop Producers

ven, 2018/05/11 - 14:00
About the Webinars

Identifying optimum genetics through variety trials is an important risk management tool for organic producers. Well-suited varieties provide farmers with crops that perform optimally in particular climatic and management conditions, withstand pest and pathogen pressure, and meet market demands. These webinars are offered through a collaboration between Organic Seed Alliance, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Service (MOSES), and the United States Department of Agriculture’s Risk Management Agency. This series of webinars is part of an on-line variety trial toolkit available at the link below

Click here for all the webinar recordings and related resources in the on-farm variety trial toolkit!

Webinar 1: Trial planning, planting, and management. March 20, 2018

This webinar will introduce farmers to the practice of variety trialing, detailing the reasons one might choose to conduct trials and how to plan a trial with a scope, scale, and focus appropriate to the growers’ needs. This session will also cover seed sourcing, and important considerations for trial planting and management. Find the recording at the On Farm Variety Trials Toolkit page here.

Webinar 2: Trial evaluation, analysis, and interpreting results. April 11, 2018

This webinar will focus on record-keeping and trial evaluation, as well as analysis and interpretation of final results. This session will introduce participants to some intuitive techniques for keeping data organized, and user-friendly online tools to aidin analyzing information collected and drawing conclusions from trial results.Find the recording at the On Farm Variety Trials Toolkit page here.

About the Presenters

Kitt Healy is the Organic Seed Alliance Research and Education Associate for the Midwest region. Her masters research focused on conducting tomato variety trials for short-season organic production, and engaging chefs and local farmers in participatory breeding and evaluation projects.

Dr. Julie Dawson,Assistant Professor, University of Wisconsin- Madison. She is Assistant Professor for Urban and Regional Food Systems in the Department of Horticulture at UW-Madison. Her research focuses on variety trialling and breeding for organic systems in the upper Midwest.

Jared Zystro, Research and Education Assistance Director, Organic Seed Alliance. Jared manages regional organic seed system development in California, conducts participatory breeding projects and variety trials, and teaches farmers about seed production and plant breeding at workshops, conference, and field days, and collaborates on other projects throughout the country.

The Grower's Guide to Conducting On-Farm Variety Trials 

Download this guide to conducting on-farm variety trials for organic producers at https://seedalliance.org/publications/growers-guide-conducting-farm-vari.... This guide provides farmers fundamental skills to conduct on-farm variety trials that reflect their particular goals and farming operations. Readers will find scientific principles presented in an accessible way, and will be walked though the process of planning, implementing, evaluating, and interpreting a variety trial. This tool is useful for farmers, as well as for research, extension, and non-profit programs looking to train farmers as co-researchers when conducting on-farm trials.

This material is funded in partnership by USDA, Risk Management Agency, under award number RM17RMEPP522C027/4500075447.

       

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 24153

Organic Vegetable Production Systems, Seed and Seed Production in Organic Farming Systems

mer, 2018/05/09 - 18:16

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic T879,905

Seed and Seed Production in Organic Farming Systems

mer, 2018/05/09 - 18:16

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic T905

Organic Vegetable Production Systems

mer, 2018/05/09 - 18:16

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic T879

Economic Risk Management for Organic Seed Growers

mer, 2018/05/09 - 17:20

eOrganic author:

Tessa Peters, Organic seed Alliance

The lack of adequate quantities of organic seed is recognized as a weak link in organic production and has resulted in ongoing exemptions to the National Organic Program’s (NOP) organic seed requirement. While organic seed production is a developing industry and a viable economic opportunity for organic growers, there is uncertainty and risk. In particular, seed growers may desire mentorship in enterprise budgeting, record keeping, and marketing strategy. This training aims to help the industry to scale up organic seed production, increase the profits for growers, and build the supply of organic seed nationally through increasing growers' knowledge by making tools and examples available for enterprise budgeting, inventory management, foundation and stock seed planning, and contracting. Scroll down for links to many of the tools and watch the presentations from the 2018 Seed Economics Intensive at the Organic Seed Growers Conference.  

Download the Tools:   Organic Seed Alliance Enterprise Budget Tool

This seed enterprise budget tool was developed  to guide farmers who are interested in knowing the costs associated with producing individual seed crops on their farms. Enterprise budgets provide a snapshot of costs associated with a single crop for a single year and do not make predictions or forecasts for future years. However, they can be used to provide guidance for farmers who are considering investments in new equipment, training, or scale. Sensitivity analyses can be done by entering different values for any variable in the production flow. Each value in the tool can be customized, though common default values are provided for some calculations in the current version.

Download the Organic Seed Alliance Enterprise Budget Tool  Enterprise Budgeting tool developed in Canada 

Based on the work of Daniel Brisebois and Richard Wiswall, the BC Seed Security Program at FarmFolk CityFolk  and the Bauta Family Initiative on Canadian Seed Security have developed a website to help you help you determine the cost of your labour and material inputs as well as potential sales revenue for seed crops.The website contains a spreadsheet which you can use, and which is being tested by seed growers in British Columbia. Find the website at http://www.bcseeds.org/business-resources/seed-enterprise-budgets/

If you wish to use this type of tool, Sebastian Aguilar's presentation in Farmer Enterprise Budget Case Studies (below) uses this type of tool. 

Climactic Considerations for Seed Crops: Guidelines and Field Trainings for Organic and Specialty Vegetable Seed Producers

This guide provides detailed climatic considerations for organic and specialty seed production in the Pacific Northwest. Topics include environmental influences on pollination and fertilization, and the influence of temperature, day length, frost-free days, precipitation, and wind. The guide also includes sections on environmental management, crop selection for seed production, and the history and geography of seed production in the region.

Download the Climactic Considerations for Seed Crops Guide 

 

  Labor Tracking Tool for Seed Producers seedalliance.org/publications/labor-tracking-tool-for-seed-producers/

Tracking on-farm labor can be confusing or overwhelming, but it is also extremely important for growers trying to get a handle on what their operator costs are, or produce enterprise budgets. The forms in this tool are designed as a guide that offers different method for tracking. Three different forms are included in the Labor Tracking Tool for Seed Producers. Each operation (or operator) might prefer a different type of form or a modified version of one of the forms. The first form is designed for operations where a person might track a different operation each day. One form would be used for each operation with a tick mark placed on the type of operation being tracked. The second form is designed for activities that will be performed many times over many dates (such as watering in a greenhouse or screening a large seed lot. The third form is designed to be used by a single operator who will track a number of different activities. Any of these (or all of these) may be useful for tracking labor in a seed production operation. Download the Labor Tracking Tool for Seed Producers

Production Planning Tool for Seed Producers

Common questions around foundation, stock, and production seed are: How much foundation seed do I need to ensure I have enough stock seed? How much stock seed should I produce every third year for my production seed? The Production Planning Tool for Seed Producers is a simple excel sheet that helps guide decision making around how much and how often to produce foundation, stock, and production seed based on your operation, desired inventory, longevity of the seed, and estimated yield. A blank template and a real-world example are included as separate worksheets.

Download the Production Planning Tool for Seed Producers

 

    Watch the Webinars: Seed Economics Intensive Recorded at the Organic Seed Growers Conference: 14 Feb, 2018

Navigating the financial challenge of growing seed commercially can be challenging and managing the risks are essential to success. Beginning and experienced seed growers joined the Organic Seed Alliance for this one-day intensive to explore tools for managing financial risk in commercial seed production through budgeting tools to evaluate capital investments, expand enterprises, and assess market opportunities. We examined real-world examples from seed growers with different marketing strategies to build knowledge of wholesale, retail, contract growing, breeding, and variety maintenance. Presenters had the opportunity to provide their own production examples and work with an agricultural economist to develop enterprise budgets. We also heard from organic seed industry representatives about gaps in the seed supply, best practices for quality control, and essentials for contracting with their organizations. 

Click here for the recordings as a YouTube playlist

Presenters: Sebastian Aguilar, Chickadee Farm; Travis Greenwalt, Highland Economics; Sam McCullough, Nash's Organic Produce; Tanya Murray, Oregon Tilth; Sarah Kleeger, Adaptive Seed; Tom Stearns, High Mowing Organic Seed; Ira Wallace, Southern Exposure Seed Exchange; Pete Zuck, Johnny's Selected Seeds

Inventory Management: Tessa Peters, Organic Seed Alliance

Seed companies largest risk is embodied in their inventory. A failure to manage inventory is the number one risk for seed businesses. In this presentation, Tessa Peters of the Organic Seed Alliance discusses inventory management strategies including variety lifecycles, marketing as a retail business or a wholesale business, considerations for stewarded varieties, managing foundation, stock, and production seed, and forecasting. 

Choosing a Scale and Marketing - Retail case study: Sarah Kleeger, Adaptive Seeds

Sarah Kleeger of Adaptive Seeds gives a behind-the-scenes look at the inner workings of her seed company. She shares the business structure and the percent shares of each of the business costs. She gives insight into managing inventory at her scale including choosing varieties through trails and tastings, providing breeder liberties and intellectual property. 

Working with Seed Companies - Wholesale case study: Sebastian Aguilar, Chickadee Farm

Sebastian Aguilar runs a wholesale contracting seed business in California. He gives an inside look at growing crops on contract. Including establishing relationships with seed companies, quality expectations, dealing with cash flow challenges, and investments in equipment. 

Enterprise Budgets - Travis Greenwalt, Highland Economics

Travis Greewalt presents an introduction to using the Organic Seed Alliance's Enterprise Budgeting Tool (linked below.) He discusses what enterprise budgets are designed to do and what they are not designed to do. Then he provides a case study of chard seed. Finally, he presents a sensitivity analysis for the chard example in which he provides different price points for and yield estimates for the example to show how an enterprise budget might be used in decision making for your farm. 

Tracking Labor - Tanya Murray, Oregon Tilth

Tanya Murray leads a cost study cohort program with Oregon State University and Oregon Tilth. She presents ideas for tracking labor costs on-farm using time studies. 

Farmer Enterprise Budget Case Studies - Sarah Kleeger, Adaptive Seeds; Sebastian Aguilar, Chickadee Farm; Sam McCullough, Nash's Organic Produce

Three farmers give real-life examples of how to use enterprise budgets to track costs for specific seed crops. Sarah discusses two squashes (Oregon Homestead Sweet Meat winter squash, Lower Salmon River Squash) and two peppers (Bacskai Feher and Korean hot peppers) using OSA's tool (linked below.) Sebastian presents a Wiswall-based method for lettuce and tomatoes. Sam McCullough presents on two varieties of chard, delivered at different seed cleaning specifications. 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 25243

Design the Cropping System to Minimize Niches for Weed Growth

ven, 2018/05/04 - 13:56

eOrganic author:

Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming

Introduction

Weed prevention begins at the planning stage of any cropping system. Plan the crop rotation and cropping system to keep the soil fully occupied by desired living vegetation, or at least covered by organic residues, as much of the year as possible.

An idle soil is the weed devil’s playground! For example, growing continuous corn each summer with winter fallow leaves the entire field available for weeds from harvest in early fall until crop emergence late the following spring. Between-row spaces remain open for weed growth until crop canopy closure—which may take two months or more for corn. This is why continuous corn is economically feasible only for conventional producers who use synthetic herbicides—and many of them now strive to save soil, money, and chemicals by planting a winter rye cover crop after corn harvest.

Any plant or other organism requires a suitable habitat or niche in order to grow and reproduce. A niche is a site within which certain conditions exist, allowing the organism to thrive and complete its life cycle. For most weeds of vegetables and other annual cropping systems, any space or time in which the soil has been recently disturbed or is open and uncovered by other vegetation constitutes a suitable niche. Thus, a key step in ecological weed management is to reduce the number and size of these weed niches in the cropping system.

Most organic vegetable farms grow a diversity of crops throughout the season, and the nonuse of herbicides opens options for crop rotation, multicropping, and cover cropping to limit niches for weeds. However, open niches typically occur during early stages of crop growth (Fig. 1). Those vegetable crops that do not form a solid canopy or root mass pose the greatest challenge, in that they do not fully occupy the niche and are thus most likely to become weedy.

Weeds emerging in wide interrow space of young squash planting
Figure 1. Morning glories and other weeds are just beginning to emerge in the wide expanses of bare soil between these rows of young winter squash. Figure credit: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

A few basic tips for minimizing weed niches include:

  • Design tight crop rotations, including production and cover crops that keep fields covered by vegetation as much as possible throughout the calendar year. In regions with cold winters, provide winter cover in the form of dormant hardy cover crops, winter-killed high-biomass covers, or other mulch or crop residues.
  • For each field, bed, or section, schedule crop planting to take place promptly after harvesting or terminating the previous crop.
  • Schedule a cover crop whenever a field or bed is expected to come out of production for longer than 30 days during the growing season, or for the remainder of the fall and winter (Fig. 2).
  • Choose planting patterns—row spacing and within-row spacing—that promote early canopy closure (foliage covers the ground so you can’t see soil surface when viewed from above), without compromising crop yield by crowding.
  • When practical, plan to mulch bare soil between crop rows or beds (open niches in space). While mulch does not close off the weed niche as thoroughly as a closed canopy of living crops, it hinders most annual weeds, and conserves moisture and nutrients for the crop.

Prompt planting of winter rye-vetch cover suppresses chickweed
Figure 2. In the left side of this field, a cover crop of winter ryehairy vetch was planted promptly after harvest of summer vegetables. Photographed at the beginning of December on a farm on Cape Cod, MA, a thick mat of cover crop has largely closed the niche for winter weeds. On the right, a delay in cover cropping has allowed a mat of common chickweed to grow. Figure credit: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

Schedule bare soil periods for limited times only, and only with specific purposes. These could include a period of cultivated fallow to draw down weed seed banks, to weaken invasive perennial weeds, or to germinate and remove weeds in a stale seedbed and allow soil warming before planting a vegetable. Another strategic fallow technique is to mow promptly after vegetable harvest to stop weed seed formation, then delay tillage for a few weeks to give the farm's cleanup crew of ground beetles, crickets, field mice, and other weed seed predators a chance to consume a substantial percentage of any weed seeds formed and shed prior to harvest. In each of these examples, the weed niche has been deliberately opened in a way that facilitates the reduction of weed populations.

Advanced and Experimental Techniques for Closing Off Weed Niches

Innovative growers and researchers continue to explore and develop new ways to reduce niches for weeds. Whereas these methods have not performed consistently enough to be recommended for widespread application, they can give excellent results when used skillfully in certain circumstances. Some of these techniques include:

  • Intercropping or companion planting
  • Interseeding or overseeding cover crops into established vegetable crops
  • No-till cover crop management prior to vegetable planting
  • Living mulches—low-growing ground covers between crop rows or beds
  • Self-seeding winter annual cover crops
Intercropping

Intercropping is the practice of growing two or more cash crops within a single bed or in alternating rows across the field, to optimize crop use of resources and to minimize space and other resources available to weeds. Vegetable crops grown together should differ in maturity date, plant architecture, rooting depth and structure, and nutrient demands in ways that reduce competition among the crops and increase total competition against weeds. Crop combinations should be chosen that have neutral or positive biochemical interactions with one another—that is, no adverse allelopathic effects—and complementary needs for light, moisture, and nutrients. This practice of companion planting is widely used in ancient traditional food gardening systems, as well as some intensively managed market gardens today.

Examples include: lettuce between rows of tomatoes, in which the lettuce shades out early-emerging weeds, and is harvested before it competes with the tomatoes (Fig. 3); spinach between Brussels sprouts (similar relationship); or quick-growing greens (heavy feeders for N, tolerant of partial shade) between widely spaced trellised rows of tall snow or snap peas, which fix their own N. The Native American “three sisters” system combines corn, runner beans, and squash, whose complementary architecture utilizes space and resources effectively, and usually yields more food per unit area than any one of the crops grown alone. The corn provides support for the beans, the beans fix nitrogen, and the squash vines rapidly cover ground between corn hills or rows and suppress weeds.

Interplanting of tomatoes and greens in hoophouse
Figure 3. Charlie Maloney of Dayspring Farm in Cologne, VA (Tidewater region) intercrops lettuce and bok choy with his high-tunnel tomatoes, thus producing two crops while virtually eliminating niches for weeds in his production beds. The greens are ready to harvest just as the tomatoes enter their rapid growth phase and begin to occupy the whole bed. Figure credit: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

Another form of intercropping alternates widely spaced rows of large vegetables like tomatoes or winter squash with swaths of cover crop such as buckwheat. The latter is allowed to grow and suppress weeds for several weeks, then cut before it begins to compete with the vegetables, and left on the soil surface as a mulch that retards later-emerging weeds.

Interseeding or Overseeding

Interseeding or overseeding of cover crops into a standing cash crop can eliminate the empty niche following harvest. Red, white, crimson, and subterranean clovers; Italian ryegrass; winter rye; and oats have sufficient shade- and traffic-tolerance to become established under the cash crop, then grow rapidly after it is harvested and cleared. Red clover is especially shade-tolerant with a “light compensation point” near 6% of full sun, so that its seedlings can become established even under a winter squash or pumpkin canopy. Combining a clover with a grass may fill the postharvest niche more thoroughly than either alone.

Some vegetable growers, especially those living in colder climates with short growing seasons, broadcast cover crops into established vegetables just before a final shallow cultivation to remove existing weeds and incorporate the cover crop seed. Essentially, this strategy utilizes the time after the vegetable crop’s minimum weed-free period to begin growing a cover crop in lieu of late-emerging weeds. Success depends on sufficient moisture and seed–soil contact to get the cover crop established.

Veteran vegetable grower and author Eliot Coleman has refined this approach, using a multirow push-seeder to drill cover crops between vegetable rows immediately after the final cultivation. Drilling can give better seed–soil contact, uniformity and stand establishment than broadcasting. Coleman (1995) developed an eight-year rotation for central Vermont (hardiness zone 4) that includes eight different vegetables, seven of them overseeded with various clovers and other cover crops (Fig. 4).

Elliott Coleman's cover cropping system
Figure 4. Eliot Coleman, author of The New Organic Grower, uses a five-row push seeder to plant cover crops between rows of vegetables when the latter are at midgrowth. After vegetables are harvested and cleared away, the young clover cover crop rapidly covers the ground, effectively closing the niche between the vegetable and subsequent cover crop, while fixing nitrogen. Figure credits: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

Grubinger (2004) has documented other successful cover crop overseeding practices used by organic farmers. Hank Bissell of Lewis Creek Farm in Starksboro, VT interseeds rye manually into fall brassicas to obtain winter and spring cover after the vegetables are finished. In early July, Will Stevens of Golden Russet Farm in Shoreham, VT seeds hairy vetch into winter squash. The vetch becomes established under the squash, covers the ground when frost kills squash foliage, and grows until the following May, thereby shutting out weeds while fixing a lot of nitrogen.

Watch this video to see how Hank Bissell of Lewis Creek Farm in Starksboro, VT manually interseeds winter rye in late fall into brassicas to obtain winter and spring cover after the vegetables are finished.

 

Watch this video to see how Will Stevens of Golden Russet Farm in Shoreham, VT uses summer-seeded hairy vetch in winter squash. No-till Cover Crop Management

No-till cover crop management entails mowing or rolling a mature cover crop to create an in situ mulch, into which vegetable starts or large seeds can be planted. This eliminates the bare-soil period between a cover crop and the subsequent vegetable, as well as tillage-related stimuli to weed seed germination. Under favorable conditions, the mulch from a high-biomass cover crop can delay the onset of weed growth for four or more weeks after vegetable planting. However, results in terms of weed control and vegetable yield have been inconsistent. Additional research is needed to refine this technique and define circumstances in which it is most likely to succeed.

Living Mulch

Living mulch consists of one or more low-growing ground cover species—for example, low-growing legumes such as white Dutch clover; dwarf perennial ryegrass; and creeping red fescue—maintained between crop rows or beds by periodic mowing. The goal is to replace tall, competitive, hard-to-manage weeds with low-growing perennial vegetation that suppresses weeds and protects the soil, while having minimal impact on crop yield. This approach works well for woody perennial crops like blueberries, grapes, and orchard fruits. However, it has been found difficult to keep living mulches from reducing vegetable yields by competing for moisture or nutrients. Living mulch has been used successfully in alleys between plastic-mulched beds of either annual vegetables or perennial crops.

Watch this video to see how Lou Lego, Elderberry Pond Couthry Foods, Auburn, NY uses living mulches between plastic-mulched vegetable rows.

The living mulch and some of its variants remain subjects of experimentation by scientists and farmers. A dying mulch consists of a winter annual grain, such as rye, planted in early spring to suppress or supplant between-row or between-bed weeds in spring planted vegetables. As summer heat builds, the winter annual living mulch declines and dies back while the vegetables enter their rapid growth and maturation phases. Another form of dying mulch is a non-winter-hardy cover crop, such as oats or buckwheat, sown in mid to late summer ahead of fall garlic planting. When the cover crop frost-kills, it becomes mulch through which the garlic emerges at the end of winter. In Pennsylvania, organic vegetable farmers Anne and Eric Nordell plant garlic into standing oats + field peas in October, which later winter-kill to provide at least some of the mulch required to suppress spring weeds in the garlic.

Self-seeding Winter Annual Cover Crops

Certain varieties of winter annual cover crops like subterranean clover, crimson clover, bigflower vetch, and Italian ryegrass can be grown as self-seeding cover crops. The cover crop is allowed to set seed and die down naturally in late spring, then followed by warm-season vegetable crops. The seeds germinate in late summer under the vegetable, thus regenerating the cover crop for the following winter without the need for postharvest tillage and seedbed preparation. The cover crop seed must be sufficiently summer-dormant that it does not emerge too early and compete with the vegetable, yet must establish sufficient stands to outcompete fall weeds. Farmers Jean Mills and Carol Eichelberger use crimson clover and annual ryegrass as self-seeding cover crops for certain vegetables on their farm in Coker, Alabama (Fig. 5).

Volunteer crimson clover and italian ryegrass
Figure 5. The crimson clover and Italian ryegrass growing beneath these fall broccoli emerged from seed shed by an earlier cover crop the preceding spring. Hot summer weather kept the seeds dormant until the onset of autumn, at which time the vegetable was sufficiently established so that the emerging ryegrss and clover did not compete significantly. The photo was taken November, 2005 at Jean Mills and Carol Eichelberger's Tuscaloosa CSA in Coker, AL. Figure credit: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

Minimizing Weed Niches in Small and Larger Scale Vegetable Production

Farmers and gardeners have developed many site-specific strategies for closing off weed niches in annual vegetable cropping systems. The details depend on climate, soil conditions, weed flora, crops grown, available equipment, and scale of operation. Growers who have limited land area tend to use more labor-intensive approaches aimed at maximum year round production of desired crop plants, and can afford to do some hand weeding during crop production. Farmers working larger acreages seek labor-efficient means to reduce weed pressure prior to planting the vegetable crop, thus minimizing weed control labor during crop production.

Over the past 40 years, Alan Chadwick and John Jeavons pioneered and developed the BioIntensive Minifarming method for sustainable food production in communities with limited land, machinery, and financial resources. Biointensive minifarming aims to make maximal use of every square foot of land to produce either food or biomass (grass–legume cover crops) to use for mulch or making compost. This system is characterized by very tight crop rotations with 60% of the time in cover crops, close plant spacings, companion planting, and multiple cropping (Jeavons, 2006). While labor intensive, this approach is highly productive and leaves little space for weeds to invade or compete. The few weeds that do emerge are pulled manually before they set seed, and composted.

Eric and Anne Nordell, who manage a six-acre vegetable farm in Pennsylvania primarily with draft horses, have developed an approach to weed management that they call bioextensive. Their strategy is to "weed the soil, not the crop", and their crop rotations include only one market crop every two years (Nordell and Nordell, 2006). The rest of the rotation is devoted to two high-biomass, weed-excluding cover crops, separated by a brief (4–6 week) cultivated fallow during the nonproduction season to draw down weed seed populations. Timing of fallow, cultivation implements (all horse-drawn), and methods are adjusted according to the existing weed flora—very shallow for small-seeded annuals; deeper for quack grass, dandelion, and other perennials. In the production year, the final cover crop is shallow-incorporated (minimizing tillage depth to reduce weed seed germination) a few weeks before vegetable planting. The Nordells find that this system greatly reduces weed control labor during vegetable production.

Watch this video about how the Nordells use ridge tillage and cover crops to greatly reduce weed control labor during vegetable production.

Another approach used on farms with sufficient land is to follow several years of intensive annual cropping with one to three full years under a perennial sod cover crop, such as red clover–timothy–orchardgrass. The perennial covers are planted, sometimes with a nurse crop of oats or other cereal grain, either after a vegetable harvest, or as an overseed into a standing vegetable crop. In addition to rebuilding the soil, the perennial cover effectively closes the niche for annual weeds-of-cultivation like lambsquarters and pigweeds, so that they cannot reproduce, and their weed seed bank declines through seed predation and decay. View the followng video clips for some ingenious and effective uses of perennial cover crops to build fertility and reduce weeds in organic vegetable production:

Watch this video to see how Will Stevens of Golden Russet Farm in Shoreham, VT uses frost-seeded red clover.

This article is part of a series on Twelve Steps Toward Ecological Weed Management in Organic Vegetables. For more information on cultural practices that reduce the niche for weeds, see:

References and Citations
  • Coleman, E. 1995. The new organic grower: A master's manual of tools and techniques for the home and market gardener. 2nd ed. Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction, VT.
  • Grubinger, V. 2004. Farmers and their innovative cover cropping techniques [VHS tape/DVD]. University of Vermont Extension, Burlington, VT.
  • Jeavons, J. 2006. How to grow more vegetables and fruits, nuts, berries, grains and other crops than you ever thought possible on less land than you can imagine. 7th edition. Ten Speed Press, Berkley, CA.
  • Nordell, E., and A. Nordell. 2006. Weed the soil, not the crop: A whole-farm approach to the weed-free market garden. Small Farmer's Journal 30 (3 - summer): 53–58.
  • Schonbeck, M., and R. Morse. 2007. Reduced tillage and cover cropping systems for organic vegetable production. Virginia Association for Biological Farming information sheet No. 9-07. (Available online at: http://vabf.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/reducedtillage_sm.pdf) (verified 4 May 2018).

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 2486

Design the Cropping System to Minimize Niches for Weed Growth

ven, 2018/05/04 - 13:56

eOrganic author:

Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming

Introduction

Weed prevention begins at the planning stage of any cropping system. Plan the crop rotation and cropping system to keep the soil fully occupied by desired living vegetation, or at least covered by organic residues, as much of the year as possible.

An idle soil is the weed devil’s playground! For example, growing continuous corn each summer with winter fallow leaves the entire field available for weeds from harvest in early fall until crop emergence late the following spring. Between-row spaces remain open for weed growth until crop canopy closure—which may take two months or more for corn. This is why continuous corn is economically feasible only for conventional producers who use synthetic herbicides—and many of them now strive to save soil, money, and chemicals by planting a winter rye cover crop after corn harvest.

Any plant or other organism requires a suitable habitat or niche in order to grow and reproduce. A niche is a site within which certain conditions exist, allowing the organism to thrive and complete its life cycle. For most weeds of vegetables and other annual cropping systems, any space or time in which the soil has been recently disturbed or is open and uncovered by other vegetation constitutes a suitable niche. Thus, a key step in ecological weed management is to reduce the number and size of these weed niches in the cropping system.

Most organic vegetable farms grow a diversity of crops throughout the season, and the nonuse of herbicides opens options for crop rotation, multicropping, and cover cropping to limit niches for weeds. However, open niches typically occur during early stages of crop growth (Fig. 1). Those vegetable crops that do not form a solid canopy or root mass pose the greatest challenge, in that they do not fully occupy the niche and are thus most likely to become weedy.

Weeds emerging in wide interrow space of young squash planting
Figure 1. Morning glories and other weeds are just beginning to emerge in the wide expanses of bare soil between these rows of young winter squash. Figure credit: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

A few basic tips for minimizing weed niches include:

  • Design tight crop rotations, including production and cover crops that keep fields covered by vegetation as much as possible throughout the calendar year. In regions with cold winters, provide winter cover in the form of dormant hardy cover crops, winter-killed high-biomass covers, or other mulch or crop residues.
  • For each field, bed, or section, schedule crop planting to take place promptly after harvesting or terminating the previous crop.
  • Schedule a cover crop whenever a field or bed is expected to come out of production for longer than 30 days during the growing season, or for the remainder of the fall and winter (Fig. 2).
  • Choose planting patterns—row spacing and within-row spacing—that promote early canopy closure (foliage covers the ground so you can’t see soil surface when viewed from above), without compromising crop yield by crowding.
  • When practical, plan to mulch bare soil between crop rows or beds (open niches in space). While mulch does not close off the weed niche as thoroughly as a closed canopy of living crops, it hinders most annual weeds, and conserves moisture and nutrients for the crop.

Prompt planting of winter rye-vetch cover suppresses chickweed
Figure 2. In the left side of this field, a cover crop of winter ryehairy vetch was planted promptly after harvest of summer vegetables. Photographed at the beginning of December on a farm on Cape Cod, MA, a thick mat of cover crop has largely closed the niche for winter weeds. On the right, a delay in cover cropping has allowed a mat of common chickweed to grow. Figure credit: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

Schedule bare soil periods for limited times only, and only with specific purposes. These could include a period of cultivated fallow to draw down weed seed banks, to weaken invasive perennial weeds, or to germinate and remove weeds in a stale seedbed and allow soil warming before planting a vegetable. Another strategic fallow technique is to mow promptly after vegetable harvest to stop weed seed formation, then delay tillage for a few weeks to give the farm's cleanup crew of ground beetles, crickets, field mice, and other weed seed predators a chance to consume a substantial percentage of any weed seeds formed and shed prior to harvest. In each of these examples, the weed niche has been deliberately opened in a way that facilitates the reduction of weed populations.

Advanced and Experimental Techniques for Closing Off Weed Niches

Innovative growers and researchers continue to explore and develop new ways to reduce niches for weeds. Whereas these methods have not performed consistently enough to be recommended for widespread application, they can give excellent results when used skillfully in certain circumstances. Some of these techniques include:

  • Intercropping or companion planting
  • Interseeding or overseeding cover crops into established vegetable crops
  • No-till cover crop management prior to vegetable planting
  • Living mulches—low-growing ground covers between crop rows or beds
  • Self-seeding winter annual cover crops
Intercropping

Intercropping is the practice of growing two or more cash crops within a single bed or in alternating rows across the field, to optimize crop use of resources and to minimize space and other resources available to weeds. Vegetable crops grown together should differ in maturity date, plant architecture, rooting depth and structure, and nutrient demands in ways that reduce competition among the crops and increase total competition against weeds. Crop combinations should be chosen that have neutral or positive biochemical interactions with one another—that is, no adverse allelopathic effects—and complementary needs for light, moisture, and nutrients. This practice of companion planting is widely used in ancient traditional food gardening systems, as well as some intensively managed market gardens today.

Examples include: lettuce between rows of tomatoes, in which the lettuce shades out early-emerging weeds, and is harvested before it competes with the tomatoes (Fig. 3); spinach between Brussels sprouts (similar relationship); or quick-growing greens (heavy feeders for N, tolerant of partial shade) between widely spaced trellised rows of tall snow or snap peas, which fix their own N. The Native American “three sisters” system combines corn, runner beans, and squash, whose complementary architecture utilizes space and resources effectively, and usually yields more food per unit area than any one of the crops grown alone. The corn provides support for the beans, the beans fix nitrogen, and the squash vines rapidly cover ground between corn hills or rows and suppress weeds.

Interplanting of tomatoes and greens in hoophouse
Figure 3. Charlie Maloney of Dayspring Farm in Cologne, VA (Tidewater region) intercrops lettuce and bok choy with his high-tunnel tomatoes, thus producing two crops while virtually eliminating niches for weeds in his production beds. The greens are ready to harvest just as the tomatoes enter their rapid growth phase and begin to occupy the whole bed. Figure credit: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

Another form of intercropping alternates widely spaced rows of large vegetables like tomatoes or winter squash with swaths of cover crop such as buckwheat. The latter is allowed to grow and suppress weeds for several weeks, then cut before it begins to compete with the vegetables, and left on the soil surface as a mulch that retards later-emerging weeds.

Interseeding or Overseeding

Interseeding or overseeding of cover crops into a standing cash crop can eliminate the empty niche following harvest. Red, white, crimson, and subterranean clovers; Italian ryegrass; winter rye; and oats have sufficient shade- and traffic-tolerance to become established under the cash crop, then grow rapidly after it is harvested and cleared. Red clover is especially shade-tolerant with a “light compensation point” near 6% of full sun, so that its seedlings can become established even under a winter squash or pumpkin canopy. Combining a clover with a grass may fill the postharvest niche more thoroughly than either alone.

Some vegetable growers, especially those living in colder climates with short growing seasons, broadcast cover crops into established vegetables just before a final shallow cultivation to remove existing weeds and incorporate the cover crop seed. Essentially, this strategy utilizes the time after the vegetable crop’s minimum weed-free period to begin growing a cover crop in lieu of late-emerging weeds. Success depends on sufficient moisture and seed–soil contact to get the cover crop established.

Veteran vegetable grower and author Eliot Coleman has refined this approach, using a multirow push-seeder to drill cover crops between vegetable rows immediately after the final cultivation. Drilling can give better seed–soil contact, uniformity and stand establishment than broadcasting. Coleman (1995) developed an eight-year rotation for central Vermont (hardiness zone 4) that includes eight different vegetables, seven of them overseeded with various clovers and other cover crops (Fig. 4).

Elliott Coleman's cover cropping system
Figure 4. Eliot Coleman, author of The New Organic Grower, uses a five-row push seeder to plant cover crops between rows of vegetables when the latter are at midgrowth. After vegetables are harvested and cleared away, the young clover cover crop rapidly covers the ground, effectively closing the niche between the vegetable and subsequent cover crop, while fixing nitrogen. Figure credits: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

Grubinger (2004) has documented other successful cover crop overseeding practices used by organic farmers. Hank Bissell of Lewis Creek Farm in Starksboro, VT interseeds rye manually into fall brassicas to obtain winter and spring cover after the vegetables are finished. In early July, Will Stevens of Golden Russet Farm in Shoreham, VT seeds hairy vetch into winter squash. The vetch becomes established under the squash, covers the ground when frost kills squash foliage, and grows until the following May, thereby shutting out weeds while fixing a lot of nitrogen.

Watch this video to see how Hank Bissell of Lewis Creek Farm in Starksboro, VT manually interseeds winter rye in late fall into brassicas to obtain winter and spring cover after the vegetables are finished.

 

Watch this video to see how Will Stevens of Golden Russet Farm in Shoreham, VT uses summer-seeded hairy vetch in winter squash. No-till Cover Crop Management

No-till cover crop management entails mowing or rolling a mature cover crop to create an in situ mulch, into which vegetable starts or large seeds can be planted. This eliminates the bare-soil period between a cover crop and the subsequent vegetable, as well as tillage-related stimuli to weed seed germination. Under favorable conditions, the mulch from a high-biomass cover crop can delay the onset of weed growth for four or more weeks after vegetable planting. However, results in terms of weed control and vegetable yield have been inconsistent. Additional research is needed to refine this technique and define circumstances in which it is most likely to succeed.

Living Mulch

Living mulch consists of one or more low-growing ground cover species—for example, low-growing legumes such as white Dutch clover; dwarf perennial ryegrass; and creeping red fescue—maintained between crop rows or beds by periodic mowing. The goal is to replace tall, competitive, hard-to-manage weeds with low-growing perennial vegetation that suppresses weeds and protects the soil, while having minimal impact on crop yield. This approach works well for woody perennial crops like blueberries, grapes, and orchard fruits. However, it has been found difficult to keep living mulches from reducing vegetable yields by competing for moisture or nutrients. Living mulch has been used successfully in alleys between plastic-mulched beds of either annual vegetables or perennial crops.

Watch this video to see how Lou Lego, Elderberry Pond Couthry Foods, Auburn, NY uses living mulches between plastic-mulched vegetable rows.

The living mulch and some of its variants remain subjects of experimentation by scientists and farmers. A dying mulch consists of a winter annual grain, such as rye, planted in early spring to suppress or supplant between-row or between-bed weeds in spring planted vegetables. As summer heat builds, the winter annual living mulch declines and dies back while the vegetables enter their rapid growth and maturation phases. Another form of dying mulch is a non-winter-hardy cover crop, such as oats or buckwheat, sown in mid to late summer ahead of fall garlic planting. When the cover crop frost-kills, it becomes mulch through which the garlic emerges at the end of winter. In Pennsylvania, organic vegetable farmers Anne and Eric Nordell plant garlic into standing oats + field peas in October, which later winter-kill to provide at least some of the mulch required to suppress spring weeds in the garlic.

Self-seeding Winter Annual Cover Crops

Certain varieties of winter annual cover crops like subterranean clover, crimson clover, bigflower vetch, and Italian ryegrass can be grown as self-seeding cover crops. The cover crop is allowed to set seed and die down naturally in late spring, then followed by warm-season vegetable crops. The seeds germinate in late summer under the vegetable, thus regenerating the cover crop for the following winter without the need for postharvest tillage and seedbed preparation. The cover crop seed must be sufficiently summer-dormant that it does not emerge too early and compete with the vegetable, yet must establish sufficient stands to outcompete fall weeds. Farmers Jean Mills and Carol Eichelberger use crimson clover and annual ryegrass as self-seeding cover crops for certain vegetables on their farm in Coker, Alabama (Fig. 5).

Volunteer crimson clover and italian ryegrass
Figure 5. The crimson clover and Italian ryegrass growing beneath these fall broccoli emerged from seed shed by an earlier cover crop the preceding spring. Hot summer weather kept the seeds dormant until the onset of autumn, at which time the vegetable was sufficiently established so that the emerging ryegrss and clover did not compete significantly. The photo was taken November, 2005 at Jean Mills and Carol Eichelberger's Tuscaloosa CSA in Coker, AL. Figure credit: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming.

Minimizing Weed Niches in Small and Larger Scale Vegetable Production

Farmers and gardeners have developed many site-specific strategies for closing off weed niches in annual vegetable cropping systems. The details depend on climate, soil conditions, weed flora, crops grown, available equipment, and scale of operation. Growers who have limited land area tend to use more labor-intensive approaches aimed at maximum year round production of desired crop plants, and can afford to do some hand weeding during crop production. Farmers working larger acreages seek labor-efficient means to reduce weed pressure prior to planting the vegetable crop, thus minimizing weed control labor during crop production.

Over the past 40 years, Alan Chadwick and John Jeavons pioneered and developed the BioIntensive Minifarming method for sustainable food production in communities with limited land, machinery, and financial resources. Biointensive minifarming aims to make maximal use of every square foot of land to produce either food or biomass (grass–legume cover crops) to use for mulch or making compost. This system is characterized by very tight crop rotations with 60% of the time in cover crops, close plant spacings, companion planting, and multiple cropping (Jeavons, 2006). While labor intensive, this approach is highly productive and leaves little space for weeds to invade or compete. The few weeds that do emerge are pulled manually before they set seed, and composted.

Eric and Anne Nordell, who manage a six-acre vegetable farm in Pennsylvania primarily with draft horses, have developed an approach to weed management that they call bioextensive. Their strategy is to "weed the soil, not the crop", and their crop rotations include only one market crop every two years (Nordell and Nordell, 2006). The rest of the rotation is devoted to two high-biomass, weed-excluding cover crops, separated by a brief (4–6 week) cultivated fallow during the nonproduction season to draw down weed seed populations. Timing of fallow, cultivation implements (all horse-drawn), and methods are adjusted according to the existing weed flora—very shallow for small-seeded annuals; deeper for quack grass, dandelion, and other perennials. In the production year, the final cover crop is shallow-incorporated (minimizing tillage depth to reduce weed seed germination) a few weeks before vegetable planting. The Nordells find that this system greatly reduces weed control labor during vegetable production.

Watch this video about how the Nordells use ridge tillage and cover crops to greatly reduce weed control labor during vegetable production.

Another approach used on farms with sufficient land is to follow several years of intensive annual cropping with one to three full years under a perennial sod cover crop, such as red clover–timothy–orchardgrass. The perennial covers are planted, sometimes with a nurse crop of oats or other cereal grain, either after a vegetable harvest, or as an overseed into a standing vegetable crop. In addition to rebuilding the soil, the perennial cover effectively closes the niche for annual weeds-of-cultivation like lambsquarters and pigweeds, so that they cannot reproduce, and their weed seed bank declines through seed predation and decay. View the followng video clips for some ingenious and effective uses of perennial cover crops to build fertility and reduce weeds in organic vegetable production:

Watch this video to see how Will Stevens of Golden Russet Farm in Shoreham, VT uses frost-seeded red clover.

This article is part of a series on Twelve Steps Toward Ecological Weed Management in Organic Vegetables. For more information on cultural practices that reduce the niche for weeds, see:

References and Citations
  • Coleman, E. 1995. The new organic grower: A master's manual of tools and techniques for the home and market gardener. 2nd ed. Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction, VT.
  • Grubinger, V. 2004. Farmers and their innovative cover cropping techniques [VHS tape/DVD]. University of Vermont Extension, Burlington, VT.
  • Jeavons, J. 2006. How to grow more vegetables and fruits, nuts, berries, grains and other crops than you ever thought possible on less land than you can imagine. 7th edition. Ten Speed Press, Berkley, CA.
  • Nordell, E., and A. Nordell. 2006. Weed the soil, not the crop: A whole-farm approach to the weed-free market garden. Small Farmer's Journal 30 (3 - summer): 53–58.
  • Schonbeck, M., and R. Morse. 2007. Reduced tillage and cover cropping systems for organic vegetable production. Virginia Association for Biological Farming information sheet No. 9-07. (Available online at: http://vabf.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/reducedtillage_sm.pdf) (verified 4 May 2018).

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 2486

eOrganic Webinar and Broadcast Recordings by Topic

mer, 2018/04/25 - 17:30

Find all archived eOrganic webinars and conference broadcast recordings on organic farming and research organized by topic on this page. For a chronological listing of webinars and for upcoming webinars, go to http://www.extension.org/pages/25242

Certification

ABCs of Organic Certification, Jim Riddle, UMN

The Barriers to Organic Transition: Impacts and Policy Solutions. Timothy Delbridge, University of Minnestota. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Developing an Organic System Plan for Row Crops, Beth Rota

Flooding and Organic Certification, Jim Riddle, UMN

GMO Contamination: What's an Organic Farmer to Do?, Jim Riddle, UMN

How can Organic, non-GMO and GMO Crops Coexist? Live Broadcast, Lynn Clarkson, Clarkson Grain. Broadcast live from the 2013 Illinois Specialty Crops, Agritourism and Organic Conference

National Organic Program Update, Miles McEvoy, NOP

Organic Certification of Research Sites and Facilities, Jim Riddle, UMN

Third Party Audits for Small and Medium Sized Meat Processors, Jim Riddle, Joe McCommons, and the Quality Control Manager of Lorentz Meats

Climate Change

2 Part Webinar Series on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Quality in Long-term Integrated and Transitional Reduced Tillage Organic Systems, Ann-Marie Fortuna, NDSU, Craig Cogger and Doug Collins, WSU Puyallup

Effects of Climate Change on Insect Communities in Organic Farming Systems, David Crowder, WSU

Extreme Weather: Challenges and Opportunities for Organic Farming Systems in the Midwest Region. Joel Gruver, Western Illinois University

Greenhouse Gases and Agriculture: Where does Organic Farming fit?, David Granatstein, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, Washington State University, Dave Huggins, WSU

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Dairy Farming Systems, Tom Richard, Gustavo Camargo, Penn State

Impact of Grain Farming Methods on Climate Change, Michel Cavigelli, USDA-ARS

New Times: New Tools: Cultivating Resilience on Your Organic Farm, Laura Lengnick, Cultivating Resilience LLC

Organic Agriculture - Global Contributions to Environment and Food Security. Nadia Scialabba, Senior Officer, Sustainable Development, FAO-UN, Broadcast from USDA Organic Systems Conference

Organic Practices for Climate Mitigation, Adaptation and Carbon Sequestration. Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck, VA Association for Biological Farming, Diana Jerkins, OFRF

Performance of Organic Treatments in Long-Term Systems Trials: Organic Benefits and Challenges in the Face of Climate Change, Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin

Shades of Green Dairy Farm Calculator, Charles Benbrook, The Organic Center

Conferences

2nd International Organic Fruit Symposium Broadcasts 2012

Dryland Organic Agriculture Symposium from the Washington Tilth Conference 2011

Fly Management on Your Organic Dairy Broadcast 2013

International Quinoa Research Symposium Broadcasts 2013

Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015 Recordings and Proceedings

Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016 Live Broadcast of Selected Presentations

Organic Soil Health Research Special Session at the Tri-Societies Conference 2017

Organicology 2015: Selected Live Broadcasts, Crop Rotation and Soil Health, and Seed Intensive Workshops

Organicology 2017 Selected Live Broadcasts on seed production and variety trials

Organic Seed Growers Conference 2012, Selected Live Broadcasts

Organic Seed Growers Conference 2014: Selected Live Broadcasts

Organic Seed Growers Conference 2016: Selected Live Broadcasts

Organic Seed Growers Conference 2018: Selected Live Broadcasts

Seed Economics Intensive at the 2018 Organic Seed Growers Conference

Conservation

Biodiversity and Organic Agriculture, Jim Brandle, University of Nebraska. From Organic Farming Systems Research at the University of Nebraska Webinar.

Getting EQIPed: USDA Conservation Programs for Organic and Transistioning Farmers, Jim Riddle, UMN

Healthy Farm Index Biodiversity Calculator, John Quinn, Furman University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

How to Implement and Verify Biodiversity Conservation Activities in Organic Agricultural Systems, Jo ann Baumgartner, Wild Farm Alliance; John Quinn, Furman University

Increasing Plant and Soil Biodiversity on Organic Farmscapes, Louis Jackson, UC Davis

NRCS Conservation Practices, Organic Management and Soil Health, Susan Andrews, Carmen Ugarte, Michelle Wander

NRCS EQIP Technical and Financial Support for Conservation on Organic Farms Webinar, Sarah Brown, Oregon Tilth

Tools for Farm Biodiversity, Olivia Smith, Bill Snyder, Amanda Edworthy, Washington State University; Miyoko Chu, Rhiannon Crain, Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Lynn Dicks, University of East Anglia; Christina Kennedy and Chris Latimer, The Nature Conservancy

Using NRCS Conservation Practices and Programs to Transition to Organic, David Lamm, NRCS

Water Management and Water Quality, Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck, VA Association for Biological Farming; Diana Jerkins, OFRF

Cover Crops

Assessing Nitrogen Contribution and Rhizobia Diversity Associated with Winter Legume Cover Crops in Organic Systems, Julie Grossman, NCSU

Breeding Efforts and Cover Crop Choices for Improved Organic Dry Bean Production Systems in Michigan, Jim Heilig, Michigan State University

Cover Crops for Disease Suppression, Alex Stone, Oregon State

Cover Crop Selection, Jude Maul, USDA ARS

Cover Crops: Selection and Management, Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck, VA Association for Biological Farming; Diana Jerkins, OFRF

Implementing Cover Crop-based Reduced Tillage in Small Scale Organic Vegetable Production. Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Increasing Soil Fertility and Health Through Cover Crops, Julie Grossman, NCSU

Linking Cover Crops, Plant Pathogens, and Disease Control in Organic Tomatoes, Brian McSpadden-Gardener

Estimating Plant-Available Nitrogen Contribution from Cover Crops, Nick Andrews, Dan Sullivan, Oregon State

The Evolution, Status, and Future of Organic No-Till in the Northeast US, William Curran, Penn State; Steven Mirsky, USDA; Bill Mason, Mason's Heritage Farms

Planning for Flexibility in Effective Crop Rotations, Chuck Mohler, Cornell

Optimizing the Benefits of Hairy Vetch in Organic Production, John Teasdale, USDA-ARS

Organicology 2015: Selected Live Broadcasts, Crop Rotation and Soil Health Workshops

Quantifying the Impacts of Cover Crops on Organic Dry Beans, Erin Hill, Michigan State University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

The Role of Cover Crops in Organic Transition Strategies, Brian McSpadden-Gardener, Ohio State

Rotational No-till and Mulching Systems for Organic Vegetable Farms, Jan-Hendrik Cropp, Under_Cover Consulting

Using Cover Crop Mixtures to Achieve Multiple Goals on the Farm, Charlie White, Mitch Hunter, Jermaine Hinds, Jim LaChance, Penn State University

Using Cover Crops to Suppress Weeds in Northeast US Farming systems, William Curran, Penn State Matthew Ryan, Cornell

Using Winter Killed Cover Crops to Facilitate Organic No-till Planting of Early Spring Vegetables, Mike Snow, Farm Manager, Accokeek Ecosystem Farm; Charlie White, Penn State

Dairy

A Look at the Newly Released Organic Pasture Rule, Kerry Smith, USDA, AMS, National Organic Program

Amending Soil in the Organic Dairy Pasture, Cindy Daley, CSU Chico

Animal Health as a "Holistic Concept" in Organic Dairy Production, Cindy Daley, CSU Chico, Recorded at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Barley Fodder Feeding for Organic Dairies, John Stoltzfus, Be-A-Blessing Organic Dairy, Fay Benson, Cornell University

Behavior Based Grazing Management: A Plant-Herbivore Interaction Webinar, Darrell Emmick

Birdsfoot Trefoil as a Forage on Organic Dairy Farms, Jennifer MacAdam, USU

Bovine Fatty Acids: From Forage to Milk, Melissa Bainbridge and Caleb Goossen, University of Vermont

Breeding and Genetics: Considerations for Organic Dairy Farms, Brad Heins, UMN

Comparing Feed Costs of Different Dairy Systems (Mainly Wisconsin) From 1995 to 2010. Tom Kriegl, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Connections between Biodiversity and Livestock Well-Being, Juan Alvez, UVM

Considerations for Out-Wintering the Organic Dairy Herd, Brad Heins, UMN

Economics of Organic Dairy Farming, Bob Parsons, University of Vermont

The Economics of Organic Dairy Farming in New England, Bob Parsons, University of Vermont

Effect of Growth, Meat Quality, Profitability, and Consumer Acceptability of Organically Raised Dairy-Beef Steers, Bradley Heins, University of Minnesota. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Enhanced Forage Intake and Milk Production on Birdsfoot Trefoil Pastures in the Western US. Jennifer MacAdam, Utah State University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Evaluating Sprouted Grains on Grazing Dairy Farms, Kathy Soder, USDA ARS

Feeding Annual Forage Crops to Organic Dairy Cows, Kelsey Juntwait, UNH. Recorded at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Fly Management in the Organic Dairy Pasture, Donald Rutz, J. Keith Waldron, New York State IPM Program

Grazing Systems and Forage Quality of Grasses for Organic Dairy Production, Brad Heins, University of Minnesota

Healthy Soils for a Healthy Organic Dairy Farm -- Broadcast from 2011 NOFA-NY Organic Dairy Conference, Heather Darby, University of Vermont, Cindy Daley, University of California, Chico

How to Calculate Pasture Dry Matter Intake on Your Organic Dairy Farm, Sarah Flack, Sarah Flack Consulting

Improving Forage Quality to Maximize Organic Dairy Systems, Heather Darby, UVM. Recorded at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Introducing Brassicas into the Organic Dairy Pasture, Fay Benson, Cornell Cooperative Extension

Learning from Our Observations of Pastures & Livestock: Preventing Pasture Problems on the Organic Dairy, Sarah Flack, Sarah Flack Consulting

Mastitis Management on Your Organic Dairy, Guy Jodarski, DVM

Maximizing Dry Matter Intake on Your Organic Dairy Farm, Karen Hoffman, USDA-NRCS

NRCS EQIP Organic Initiative and Organic Dairy Farms, Sarah Brown, Oregon Tilth, Kevin Kaija, USDA NRCS

Organic Dairy for the Next Generation. Heather Darby, University of Vermont. Broadcast from the USDA Organic Farming Systems Conference 2011.

Organic Dairy Forages: Focus on Summer Annuals, Heather Darby, University of Vermont.

Organic Weed Management on Livestock Pastures, Sid Bosworth, University of Vermont

Setting up a Grazing System on Your Organic Dairy Farm, Sarah Flack, Sarah Flack Consulting

Shades of Green Dairy Farm Calculator, Charles Benbrook, The Organic Center

Stockpiling Forages to Extend the Grazing Season on Your Organic Dairy, Laura Paine, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection

Supplementing the Organic Dairy Cow Diet: Results of Molasses and Flaxseed Feeding Trials, Kathy Soder, USDA-ARS

Supplementing the Organic Dairy Cow Diet with Flaxseed, Andre Brito, University of New Hampshire, Heather Darby, University of Vermont

Transitioning Organic Dairy Cows off and on Pasture, Rick Kersbergen, University of Maine

Unique Fly Control Methods for Organic Dairy Production, Brad Heins and Roger Moon, University of Minnesota

Using Small Grains as Forages on Your Organic Dairy, Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension

Your Organic Dairy Herd Health Toolbox, Hubert Karreman, Penn Dutch Cow Care

Disease Management

A Novel Strategy for Soil-borne Disease Management: Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD), Carol Shennan, UCSC, David Butler, University of Tennessee

Advances in Biosolarization Technology to Improve Soil Health and Organic Control of Soilborne Pests. James Stapleton, UC Kearney Ag Research and Extension Center. Recorded at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016.

Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation to Control Soil Borne Pathogens: Current Research Findings and On-farm Implementation, Carol Shennan and Joji Muramoto, University of California Santa Cruz

Biocontrol in Fire Blight: Why a Yeast Represents a New Paradigm in Disease Suppression. Ken Johnson, Oregon State University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Deploying Microbes as a Seed Treatment for Protection against Soilborne Plant Pathogens. Eric Carr, Rodale Institute. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Grafting for Disease Management in Organic Tomato Production, Frank Louws North Carolina State University Cary Rivard, Kansas State University

Grafting Tomatoes for Organic Open Field and High Tunnel Production, David Francis, Ohio State

Integrated Clubroot Management for Brassica Crops, Aaron Heinrich and Ale Stone, Oregon State University

Late Blight Control in Your Organic Garden, Meg McGrath, Cornell

Late Blight Control on Organic Farms 2010 Webinar Meg McGrath, Cornell; Sally Miller, Ohio State

Late Blight of Tomato and Potato: Recent Occurrences and Management Experiences, Margaret T. McGrath, Chris Smart, Beth Gugino, Amanda Gevens, Pamela Roberts

Late Blight Webinar 2009, Sally Miller, Ohio State; Meg McGrath, Cornell: Alex Stone, Oregon State

Linking Cover Crops, Plant Pathogens, and Disease Control in Organic Tomatoes, Brian McSpadden-Gardener, Ohio State

Managing Cucurbit Downy Mildew in Organic Systems in the Northeast, Christine Smart, Cornell University

Non-Antibiotic Control of Fire Blight: What Works As We Head Into a New Era. Ken Johnson, Oregon State University, Rachel Elkins, UC Extension, Tim Smith, WSU Extension. 

Organic Methods for Control of Insect Pests and Diseases of Pecan and Peach, David Shapiro-Ilan, Clive Bock, USDA ARS

Organic Tomato Foliar Pathogen IPM Webinar, Dan Egel, Lori Hoagland and Amit-Kum Jaiswal, Purdue University. 2018

Use of High Glucosinolate Mustard as an Organic Biofumigant in Vegetable Crops, Heather Darby and Abha Gupta, University of Vermont Extension; Katie Campbell-Nelson, University of Massachusetts

Using Biofungicides, Biostimulants and Biofertilizers to Boost Crop Productivity and Help Manage Vegetable Diseases, Giuseppe Colla, Tuscia University; Mariateresa Cardarelli, Italian Ministry of Agriculture; Dan Egel, Laurie Hogland, Purdue University

Using Contans (Coniothyrium minitans) for White Mold Management on Organic Farms Webinar, Alex Stone, Oregon State University

Viral Diseases in Cucurbits: Identification and Management Strategies, John Murphy, Auburn University

Extension

Be my friend: Utilizing social media such as Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest to engage and interact with your audience, Debra Heleba, University of Vermont Extension; Debbie Roos, North Carolina State University Extension

Effective Presentations: How to Develop and Deliver a Farmer-Friendly Talk, Seth Wilner, University of New Hampshire

Excellence in Organic Extension Webinar Series

How am I doing: Improving your program by evaluating your extension program with feedback and follow-up, Seth Wilner, University of New Hampshire; Anu Rangarajan, Cornell University

Innovative Approaches to Extension in Organic and Sustainable Agriculture. Bruna Irene Grimberg, Fabian Menalled and Mary Burrows, Montana State University

Out in the sun: How to plan and put on an engaging, informative and successful field day, Charlie White, PSU, Molly Hamilton, NCSU

Food Safety

Food Safety in Organic Leafy Greens, Sadhana Ravishankar, University of Arizona

Food Safety in Organic Poultry, Sandra Diaz Lopez, Irene Hanning-Jarquin

Good Sense Food Safety Practices on Organic Vegetable Farms, Chris Blanchard, Purple Pitchfork

Impacts of the Food Safety Modernization Act on Diversified Organic Vegetable Farms, Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin

Microbial Food Safety Issues of Organic Foods, Francisco Diez-Gonzalez, University of Minnesota

Tracking Your Produce for Your Business and Health, Colleen Collier Bess, Michigan Dept of Agriculture

Fruit Production

Design and Management of Organic Strawberry/Vegetable Rotations, Carol Shennan and Joji Muramoto, UCSC

Fire Blight Control in Organic Pome Fruit Systems Under the Proposed Non-antibiotic Standard, Ken Johnson, Oregon State

Melon Medley: Organic Production Practices, Microbial Safety and Consumer Preferences of various Melon Varieties, Shirley Micallef, Kathryne Everts, University of Maryland

Nitrogen Management in Organic Strawberries: Challenges and Approaches, Mark Gaskell, UC Extension; Carol Shennan and Joji Muramoto, UCSC

Non-Antibiotic Control of Fire Blight: What Works As We Head Into a New Era. Ken Johnson, Oregon State University, Rachel Elkins, UC Extension, Tim Smith, WSU Extension. 

The OrganicA Project: Current Research on Organic Production of Ginger Gold, Honeycrisp, Zestar!, Macoun, and Liberty Apples, Lorraine Berkett, University of Vermont

Organic Blackberry Production: Tips Learned from an Ongoing Research Study, Bernadine Strik, Luis Valenzuela, Oregon State University; David Bryla, USDA-ARS

Organic Blueberry Production, Bernadine Strik, Handell Larco, Oregon State University, David Bryla, USDA-ARS.

Organic Fruit Production Research. Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University, Broadcast from USDA Organic Farming Systems Conference, 2011. Broadcast from the International Organic Fruit Symposium, 2012

Organic Methods for Control of Insect Pests and Diseases of Pecan and Peach, David Shapiro-Ilan, Clive Bock, USDA-ARS

Research Update on Non-antibiotic Control of Fire Blight, Ken Johnson, Oregon State; Rachel Elkins, UC Cooperative Extension; Tim Smith, WSU Cooperative Extension

Soil Health Improvement in an Organic Orchard Production System in Northwest Missouri, Robert Kremer, USDA ARS

Transition to Organic Fruit Production - Impacts on Yield and Environmental Performance in a Muscadine Vineyard. Girish K. Panicker, Director, Center for Conservation Research, Alcorn State University, Broadcast from USDA Organic Systems Conference 2011.

Undercover Nutrient Investigation: The Effects of Mulch on Nutrients for Blueberry, Dan Sullivan, Ryan Costello, Luis Valenzuela, Oregon State

2nd International Organic Fruit Symposium Broadcasts, 2012

Grain Production (includes quinoa)

The "Ancient" Grains Emmer, Einkorn and Spelt: What We Know and What We Need to Find Out Frank Kutka, NPSAS, Steve Zwinger, NDSU, Julie Dawson, Cornell, June Russell, Greenmarket/GrowNYC

Baking evaluation, sensory analysis, and nutritional characteristics of modern, heritage, and ancient wheat varieties. Lisa Kissing Kucek, Cornell; Abdullah Jaradat, USDA ARS; Julie Dawson, University of Wisconsin

Barley Fodder Feeding for Organic Dairies, John Stoltzfus, Be-A-Blessing Organic Dairy, Fay Benson, Cornell University

Compost Carryover Effects on Soil Quality and Productivity in Organic Dryland Wheat. Earl Creech and Jennifer Reeve, Utah State University

Crop Rotation, Cultivation and Weed Control in Row Crops, Klaas and Mary-Howell Martens, Broadcast from the NOFA-NY Organic Dairy and Field Crop Conference, November 4, 2011

Dehulling Ancient Grains, Frank Kutka, NPSAS; Brian Baker; Nigel Tudor, Weatherbury Farm; Elizabeth Dyck, OGRIN

Dryland Organic Agriculture Symposium from the Washington Tilth Conference 2011, Broadcast from the NOFA-NY Organic Dairy and Field Crop Conference, November 4, 2011

Growing and Marketing Food-grade Grains, Elizabeth Dyck, OGRIN; Thor Oechsner, Oechsner Farm

Heritage and Ancient Wheat: Varietal Performance and Managment, Michael Davis, Cornell University; Steve Zwinger, NDSU

How can Organic, non-GMO and GMO Crops Coexist? Live Broadcast, Lynn Clarkson, Clarkson Grain

Impact of Grain Farming Methods on Climate Change, Michel Cavigelli, USDA-ARS

International Quinoa Research Symposium Broadcast, Various

Management for High-Quality Organic Wheat and Ancient Grain Production in the Northeast, David Benscher, Cornell, Greg Roth, Penn State, Elizabeth Dyck, OGRIN

Nutrient Density in Grain Crops, Kevin Engelbert, Engelbert Farms LLC; Orin Moyer, Fertrell Company; Margaret Smith, Cornell University. Broadcast at the NOFA-NY Organic Dairy and Field Crop Conference on Nov 4, 2011

Organic Grains. Ellen Mallory, University of Maine. Broadcast from USDA Organic Farming Systems Conference, 2011.

Organic Quinoa Production in the Pacific Northwest, Kevin Murphy, WSU

Organic Weed Management in Organic Grain Cropping Systems, Chris Reberg Horton, NCSU

Participatory Breeding of Wheat, Spelt, Emmer and Einkorn for Organic Farming, Lisa Kissing Kucek, Cornell University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Soil Fertility Management in Organic Grain Cropping Systems, John Spargo, University of Massachusetts. Broadcast from Carolina Organic Commodities and Livestock Conference, 2012.

Soil Fertility Management in Organic Wheat Production, John Spargo, University of Massachusetts. Broadcast from Carolina Organic Commodities and Livestock Conference, 2012.

Using Small Grains as Forages on Your Organic Dairy, Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension

Wheat Mycotoxins in Organic Grain Systems, Christina Cowger, USDA-ARS and NCSU. Broadcast from the Carolina Organic Commodities and Livestock Conference, 2012.

Wheat Varietal Selection for Organic Grains in North Carolina, Chris Reberg Horton, NCSU. Broadcast from the Carolina Organic Commodities and Livestock Conference, 2012.

Working With Local Organic Grains, Stefan Senders, Wide Awake Bakery; Peter Endriss, Runner & Stone Bakery and Restaurant; Dan Avery, Dakota Earth Bakery; Steve Gonzalez, Sfoglini Pasta Shop

Hops Production

Starting Up Small-Scale Organic Hops Production, Rob Sirrine, Michigan State University, Brian Tennis, Michigan Hop Alliance

Insect Management, Beneficial Insects and Pollinators

Biologically Based Organic Management Strategies for Spotted Wing Drosophila, Vaughn Walton, Oregon State University; Rufus Isaacs, Michigan State University; Hannah Burrack, North Carolina State University

Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs, Anne Nielsen, Rutgers University

Building Pest-Suppressive Organic Farms: Tools and Strategies Used by Five Long-Term Organic Farms, Helen Atthowe and Carl Rosato, Woodleaf Farm

Diversity by Design: Using Trap Crops to Control the Cruciferous Flea Beetle, Joyce Parker, EPA

Ecological Farm Design for Pest Management In Organic Vegetable Production: Successes and Challenges on Two Farms, Helen Atthowe

Effects of Climate Change on Insect Communities in Organic Farming Systems, David Crowder, WSU

Farming for Native Bees, Sara Leon Guerrero, UC Berkeley. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Fly Management in the Organic Dairy Pasture, Donald Rutz, J. Keith Waldron, New York State IPM Program

An Integrated Approach to Managing Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle in Crucifer Crops. Rammohan Balusu, Ayanava Majumdar, Auburn University; Elena Rhodes, University of Florida

Integrated Pest Management in Organic Field Crops, Eileen Cullen. Robin Mittenthal, University of Wisconsin, Christine Mason, Standard Process Farm

IPM in Crucifer Crops: Focus on the Yellow-margined Leaf Beetle, Rammohan Balusu and Ayanava Majumdar, Auburn University; Ron Cave, University of Florida

Live Broadcast from Fly Management on Your Organic Dairy Workshop, Roger Moon, University of Minnesota; J Keith Waldron, Cornell; Wes Watson, North Carolina State University

Managing Bad Stink Bugs Using Good Stink Bugs, Yong-Lak Park, West Virginia University

Management Options for Striped Cucumber Beetle in Organic Cucurbits, Abby Seaman and Jeffrey Gardner, Cornell University

Management of spotted wing drosophila using organically approved strategies: An update, NIFA OREI project research team led by Ash Sial, University of Georgia. 2018

Organic Methods for Control of Insect Pests and Diseases of Pecan and Peach, David Shapiro-Ilan, Clive Bock, USDA-ARS

Natural Enemies and Biological Control of Lepidopteran Brassica Pests in Urban Agriculture, David Lowenstein, University of Illinois at Chicago. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Promoting Native Bee Pollinators in Organic Farming Systems. David Crowder and Elias Bloom, Washington State University

Providing Habitat for Wild Bees on Organic Farms, Elias Bloom and Rachel Olsson, Washington State University; Bridget McNassar, Oxbow Farm

Scouting for Vegetable and Fruit Pests on Organic Farms, Helen Atthowe and Doug O'Brien

Stink Bug Management with Trap Crops, Russell Mizell, University of Florida

Systems Organic Management Suppresses Cabbageworm Outbreaks: Evidence from 4 Long-term Organic Farms, Jake Asplund, Washington State University; Doug O'Brien, Doug O'Brien Agricultural Consulting

Trap Cropping in Organic Strawberries to Manage Lygus Bugs in California, by Diego Nieto, University of California Santa Cruz

Unique Fly Control Methods for Organic Dairy Production, Brad Heins, University of Minnesota

Wild Bee Monitoring, Education, and Outreach in Organic Farming Systems, Elias Bloom, WSU; Rosy Smit, Camp Korey

Livestock Production

A novel nutritional approach to rearing organic pastured broiler chickens (Part 1), Mike Lilburn, The Ohio State University

A Novel Nutritional Approach to Rearing Organic Pastured Broiler Chickens (Part 2), Mike Lilburn, The Ohio State University

Connections between Biodiversity and Livestock Well-Being, Juan Alvez UVM

Dryland Organic Agriculture Symposium from the Washington Tilth Conference 2011

Effect of Growth, Meat Quality, Profitability, and Consumer Acceptability of Organically Raised Dairy-Beef Steers, Bradley Heins, University of Minnesota. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Integrating Livestock into Dryland Organic Crop Rotations, Lynne Carpenter Boggs, Jonathan Wachter, Washington State University

Measurement of Biomarkers in Food Animals to Assess Animal Inflammation and Wellness, David Bane, DVM, Sydney, IL. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Organic Poultry: Developing Natural Solutions for Reducing Pathogens and Improving Production, Annie Donoghue, USDA ARS. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Targeted Sheep Grazing in Organic Dryland Systems, Fabian Menalled, Devon Ragen, Perry Miller, Montana State University

Third Party Audits for Small and Medium Sized Meat Processors, Jim Riddle, Joe McCommons, Arion Thiboumery, and Erin Lohmann

Marketing and Economics

CSA Farmer's Guide to Accepting SNAP/EBT Payments, Bryan Allan, Friends of Zenger Farm

Dryland Organic Agriculture Symposium from the Washington Tilth Conference 2011

Export Opportunities and Import Competition: Improving Understanding of International Markets for US Organic Farm and Processed Products, Kathryn Boys, Virginia Tech. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Hail Can Happen! Insurance Options for Organic Farms, Michael Stein, OFRF

How can Organic, non-GMO and GMO Crops Coexist? Live Broadcast, Lynn Clarkson, Clarkson Grain. Broadcast live from the 2013 Illinois Specialty Crops, Agritourism and Organic Conference

Local Dirt: Beyond Marketing. Find Buyers, Sell Online, Source & Buy Product…Yourself, Heather Hilleren, Kassie Rizzo, Local Dirt

Lower Financial Risk by Increasing Soil Health, Mark Schonbeck, VA Association for Biological Farming

North Carolina's Statewide Initiative for Building a Local Food Economy, Nancy Creamer, Teisha Wymore, North Carolina State University

The Organic-Conventional Yield Gap, Carolyn Dimitri, New York University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Organic Farming Financial Benchmarks, Dale Nordquist, UMN

Plan for Marketing Your Organic Products, Susan Smalley, MSU

Planning Your Organic Farm for Profit, Richard Wiswall, Cate Farm

Veggie Compass: Whole Farm Profit Management, Erin Silva, Rebecca Claypool, University of Wisconsin

Why Eat Organic: Live Broadcast from the Illinois Specialty Crops, Agritourism and Organic Conference, Jim Riddle, University of Minnesota

Research and Research Methods

Assessment of Future Organic Research Needs, Diana Jerkins, OFRF. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

A Certified Organic Winter Nursery for Corn Breeding, Bryan Brunner, University of Puerto Rico, Kevin Montgomery, Paul Scott, USDA ARS

The Benefits of Organic Agriculture. Charles Benbrook. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Collaboration between Farmers, Extension Agents, Wholesalers and Consumers, Aurelie Cardona, French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Broadcast from the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Conducting On-Farm Variety Trials to Manage Risk for Organic and Specialty Crop Producers 2 Part Webinar. Micaela colley, Jared Zystro, Kitt Healy, Organic Seed Alliance; Julie Dawson, University of Wisconsin Madison

European and North American Organic Agriculture Research Policies, Brian Baker, Belcairn Concerns. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Getting Started with Barcode Based Digital Data Collection for Vegetable Breeding Programs. Michael Mazourek, Cornell University

Integrating Undergraduate Interns in Organic Farming Research and Beginner Farmer Programming at UCSC, Damien Parr, UCSC. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Long-Term Research in Organic Systems at Russell Ranch, Amelie Gaudin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015: Selected Live Broadcasts (see topic headings to find recordings)

Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016: Selected Recordings (see topic headings to find recordings)

On-Farm Testing: Finding What Works for Your Farm, Diana Roberts, WSU Extension from the Dryland Organic Agriculture Symposium at the Washington Tilth Conference, 2011

Organic Farming in France, Marc Tchamitchian, French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research symposium 2015

Organic Farming Systems Research at the University of Nebraska, by Elizabeth Sarno, Charles Shapiro, Richard Little, Vicki Schlegel and Jim Brandle, University of Nebraska.

Organics in 3D: Diversity, Dynamics and Design of Organic Agriculture. Stephane Bellon, French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Broadcast from the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Participatory On-farm Research: Beyond the Randomized Complete Block Design, Sieg Snapp, MSU

Taking Stock of Organic Research Investments 2002-2014, Joanna Ory, Diana Jerkins, Mark Schonbeck, Organic Farming Research Foundation

UC Berkeley Urban Agroecology Survey and Assessment Tool, Joshua Arnold, UC Berkeley. Presented at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

USDA NIFA Support for Organic Agriculture Research, Education and Extension, Matthieu Ngouajio, USDA NIFA, Organic Agriculture Research Symposium, 2016

Using Participatory Variety Trials to Assess Response to Environment in Organic Vegetable Crops, Alex Lyon, University of Wisconsin

The Vital Role of Research to Advance Organic Agriculture Worldwide, Andre Leu, IFOAM Organics International, Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

The Wisconsin Integrated Cropping Systems Trial: 26 Years of Research in Agricultural Sustainability. Randy Jackson, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Seed Production and Breeding

Breeding Hard Winter Wheat for Organic Markets, Richard Little, University of Nebraska. From Organic Farming Research at the University of Nebraska Webinar.

Breeding Efforts and Cover Crop Choices for Improved Organic Dry Bean Production Systems in Michigan, Jim Heilig, Michigan State University

Breeding High Nutritional Value Corn for Organic Farmers. Walter Goldstein, Mandaamin Institute. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Building a healthy organic seed system for potatoes through farmer-researcher partnerships, Ruth Genger, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture. Phillip Simon, USDA ARS and University of Wisconsin; Lori Hoagland, Purdue; Philip Roberts, UC Riverside; Micaela Colley, Jared Zystro and Cathleen McCluskey, Organic Seed Alliance

A Certified Organic Winter Nursery for Corn Breeding, Bryan Brunner, University of Puerto Rico, Kevin Montgomery, Paul Scott, USDA ARS

Collaborative Release of an Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Variety, Adrienne Shelton, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Conducting On-Farm Variety Trials to Manage Risk for Organic and Specialty Crop Producers 2-Part Webinar. Micaela colley, Jared Zystro, Kitt Healy, Organic Seed Alliance; Julie Dawson, University of Wisconsin Madison. 2018

Getting Started with Barcode Based Digital Data Collection for Vegetable Breeding Programs. Michael Mazourek, Cornell University

How to Breed for Organic Production Systems, Jim Myers, Oregon State

Hybrid, Double Cross and Open-pollinated Corn: What does it all mean? Margaret Smith, Cornell; Richard Pratt, New Mexico State University

The CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project: Location and Genetic Background Influence Carrot Field Performance and Flavor, Philipp Simon, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Organicology 2015 Seed Intensive Workshop:

 

Organic Seed Grower's Conference 2012, Port Townsend Washington: Selected Live Broadcasts

Organic Seed Growers Conference 2014: Selected Live Broadcasts

Organic Seed Growers Conference 2016: Live Broadcasts and Recordings

Organic Seed Growers Conference 2018: Seed Economics Intensive and Selected Live Broadcasts

Organic Seed Breeding for Nutrition, Philipp Simon, University of Wisconsin; Walter Goldstein, Mandaamin Institute; Jim Myers, Oregon State; Micaela Colley, Organic Seed Alliance

Organic Seed Production Six Webinar Series, Organic Seed Alliance and MESA

Organic Tomato Seed Production. Julie Dawson, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Dan Egel, Purdue University; Laurie McKenzie, Organic Seed Alliance.

Participatory Breeding of Wheat, Spelt, Emmer and Einkorn for Organic Farming, Lisa Kissing Kucek, Cornell University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Plant Genetics: Plant Breeding and Variety Selection, Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck, VA Association for Biological Farming; Diana Jerkins, OFRF

Pollen Drift: Reframing the Biotechnology Liability Debate. Lisa Schlessinger, University of Illinois. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

A Public Plant Breeding Program to Develop Organic Cultivars, Charlie Brummer, UC Davis. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Seed Needs and Challenges: Interviews with Wisconsin Organic Vegetable Growers (aka Workhorse Varieties for Organic Farms). Alexandra Lyon. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Selecting "Modern" Heirloom Dry Beans, Thomas Michaels, University of Mineesota

Sourcing Organic Seed Just Got Easier: An Introduction to Organic Seed Finder, Chet Boruff, AOSCA, Kristina Hubbard, Organic Seed Alliance

State of Organic Seed: Results of a Survey. Jared Zystro, Organic Seed Alliance. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

State of Organic Seed, Jared Zystro, Organic seed Alliance. Recorded at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Tomato Varietal Improvement, Julie Dawson, University of Wisconsin; Lori Hoagland and Dan Egel, Purdue; James Myers and Kara Young, Oregon State University; Laurie McKenzie and Jared Zystro, Organic Seed Alliance

Tomato Variety Trials for Direct Market Quality and Flavor, Kit Healy, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Understanding the National Organic Program Seed Rule and Sourcing Organic Seed, Kristina Hubbard, Organic Seed Alliance; Emily Brown Rosen, USDA NOP, Zea Sonnabend, CCOF and NOSB, Cullen Carns-Hilliker, MOSA

Updates from the NCSU Organic Cropping Systems Program and Growing Canola, Chris Reberg-Horton, NCSU. Broadcast from the Carolina Livestock and Organic Commodities Conference, 2012.

Using Participatory Variety Trials to Assess Response to Environment in Organic Vegetable Crops, Alex Lyon, University of Wisconsin

Using the eOrganic Organic Seed Production Tutorials, Jared Zystro, Organic Seed Alliance

Soil and Tillage

A Novel Strategy for Soil-borne Disease Management: Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD), Carol Shennan, UCSC; David Butler, University of Tennessee

Assessing Nitrogen Contribution and Rhizobia Diversity Associated with Winter Legume Cover Crops in Organic Systems, Julie Grossman, NCSU

Building Organic Matter for Healthy Soils: An Overview. Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck VA Association for Biological Farming, Diana Jerkins, OFRF

The Evolution, Status, and Future of Organic No-Till in the Northeast US, Bill Curran, Penn State, Steven Mirsky, USDA, Bill Mason, Mason's Heritage Farms

Estimating Plant-Available Nitrogen Contribution from Cover Crops, Nick Andrews, Dan Sullivan, Oregon State

Increasing Plant and Soil Biodiversity on Organic Farmscapes, Louis Jackson, UC Davis

Increased Microbial Efficiency and Growth Drive Soil Organic Matter Increases in Organic Cropping Systems. Stuart Grandy. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Long-term Tillage, Rotation and Perennialization Effects on Particulate and Aggregate Matter. Anna Cates, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Nutrient Management in Organic Systems, by Charles Shapiro, from Organic Farming Systems Research at the University of Nebraska Webinar.

Nutrient Management for Crops, Soil and the Envivronment, Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck, VA Association for Biological Farming, Diana Jerkins, OFRF

Organic Agriculture Research Symposium Selected Live Broadcasts, various

Organicology 2015: Selected Live Broadcasts, Crop Rotation and Soil Health Workshops

Organic Soil Health Research Special Session at the Tri-Societies Conference 2017

Planning for Flexibility in Effective Crop Rotations, Chuck Mohler, Cornell

Practical Conservation Tillage, Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck VA Association for Biological Farming, Diana Jerkins, OFRF

Putting the Pieces Together: Lessons Learned from a Reduced-Tillage Organic Cropping Systems Project, William Curran, Ron Hoover, John Wallace

Reduced Tillage in Organic Vegetable Production: Successes, Challenges, and New Directions, Helen Atthowe

Researcher and Farmer Innovation to Increase Nitrogen Cycling on Organic Farms, by Louise Jackson and Tim Bowles

Root Media and Fertility Management for Organic Transplants, John Biernbaum, MSU

Rotational No-till and Mulching Systems for Organic Vegetable Farms, Jan-Hendrik Cropp, Under_Cover Consulting

Soil Fertility Management in Organic Grain Cropping Systems, John Spargo, University of Massachusetts. Broadcast from Carolina Organic Commodities and Livestock Conference, 2012.

Soil Fertility Management in Organic Wheat Production, John Spargo, University of Massachusetts. Broadcast from Carolina Organic Commodities and Livestock Conference, 2012.

Soil Health Improvement in an Organic Orchard Production System in Northwest Missouri, Robert Kremer, USDA ARS

Trends in Soilborne Disease Incidence on Two Long-Term Organic Vegetable Farms. Doug O'Brien, O'Brien Consulting. Recorded at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2016

Undercover Nutrient Investigation: The Effects of Mulch on Nutrients for Blueberry, Dan Sullivan, Ryan Costello, Luis Valenzuela, Oregon State

Understanding and Managing Soil Biology for Soil Health and Crop Production. Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck, VA Association for Biological Farming, Diana Jerkins, OFRF

Using Biofungicides, Biostimulants and Biofertilizers to Boost Crop Productivity and Help Manage Vegetable Diseases, Giuseppe Colla, Tuscia University; Mariateresa Cardarelli, Italian Ministry of Agriculture; Dan Egel, Laurie Hogland, Purdue University

Weed Management

Abrasive Weeding: Efficiency, Multifunctionality and Profitability, Sam Wortman, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 2018

Blasting the Competition Away: Air-propelled Abrasive Grits for Weed Management in Organic Grain and Vegetable Crops, Sam Wortman, University of Illinois; Sharon Clay and Daniel Humburg, University of South Dakota

Can we talk? Improving Weed Management Communication between Organic Farmers and Extension, Sarah Zwickle, The Ohio State University; Marleen Riemens, Wageningen University and Research Center, Netherlands

Cultivation and Seedbank Management for Improved Weed Control, Eric Gallandt, University of Maine

Management Affects the Weed Suppression Potential of Soil Microorganisms and Green Manures. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Reearch Symposium 2016

Organic Weed Management in Organic Grain Cropping Systems, Chris Reberg Horton,  NCSU, Broadcast from the Carolina Livestock and Organic Commodities Conference, 2012.

Organic Weed Management on Livestock Pastures, Sid Bosworth, University of Vermont

Using Cover Crops to Suppress Weeds in Northeast US Farming systems, William Curran, Penn State; Matthew Ryan, Cornell

Vegetable Production

Breeding Efforts and Cover Crop Choices for Improved Organic Dry Bean Production Systems in Michigan, Jim Heilig, Michigan State University

Comparison of Labor Needs for Field Production, Harvest and Packing on Organic Diversified Vegetable Farms in the Upper Midwest. Rachel Weil, University of Wisconsin. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Design and Management of Organic Strawberry/Vegetable Rotations, Carol Shennan, UCSC

Evaluation of carrot (Daucus carota, L.) for traits related to early seedling establishment and canopy growth at different planting densities in organic systems. Sara Turner, Texas A&M University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Grafting for Disease Management in Organic Tomato Production, Frank Louws North Carolina State University Cary Rivard, Kansas State University

Grafting Tomatoes for Organic Open Field and High Tunnel Production, David Francis, Ohio State

Growing Vegetables and Fruit without Irrigation in Northern California and the Maritime Pacific Northwest, Amy Garrett, Oregon State University; Jacques Neukom, Neukom Farm; Steve Peters, Seed Revolution Now

High Tunnel Production and Low Cost Tunnel Construction, Tim Coolong, University of Kentucky

Late Blight Control in Your Organic Garden, Meg McGrath, Cornell

Late Blight Control on Organic Farms 2010 Webinar Meg McGrath, Cornell; Sally Miller, Ohio State

Late Blight Webinar 2009, Sally Miller, Ohio State; Meg McGrath, Cornell: Alex Stone, Oregon State

Linking Cover Crops, Plant Pathogens, and Disease Control in Organic Tomatoes, Brian McSpadden-Gardener, Ohio State

Making and Using Compost Teas, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs and CeCe Crosby, Washington State University

Organic Agriculture Research Symposium Selected Live Broadcasts, various

Organic Cropping Systems for Vegetable Production: Crop Nutrition and Environmental Effects. Kristian Thorup-Kristensen, Copenhagen University, Broadcast from USDA Organic Farming Systems Conference, 2011

Organic Dry Bean Production Systems and Cultivar Choices, Thomas Michaels, Craig Sheaffer, Hannah Swegarden and Claire Flavin, University of Minnesota

Permaculture on Organic Farms: The State of Play, Rafter Ferguson, Kevin Wolz, Ron Revord, University of Illinois

Rotational No-till and Mulching Systems for Organic Vegetable Farms, Jan-Hendrik Cropp, Under_Cover Consulting

Using Participatory Variety Trials to Assess Response to Environment in Organic Vegetable Crops, Alex Lyon, University of Wisconsin

Weed Management: An Ecological Approach, Soil Health and Organic Farming Webinar Series, Mark Schonbeck, VA Association for Biological Farming; Diana Jerkins, OFRF

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 8734

Organic Vegetable Production Systems, Soil and Fertility Management in Organic Farming Systems

mer, 2018/04/25 - 16:40

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic T879,867

Soil and Fertility Management in Organic Farming Systems

mer, 2018/04/25 - 16:40

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic T867

Hail Can Happen! Insurance Options for Organic Farms

mer, 2018/04/25 - 16:35

Join eOrganic and the Organic Farming Research Foundation for a webinar about insurance options for organic farm, which takes place on February 6, 2019 at 11AM Pacific Time (12PM Mountain, 1PM Central, 2PM Eastern Time). The webinar is free and open to the public, and advance registration is required.

Register now at https://oregonstate.webex.com/oregonstate/onstage/g.php?MTID=e456f6d6fbc634065de951fe137bd33f7

About the Webinar

Managing risk is of utmost importance for all farmers, especially organic producers. This webinar will educate organic and transitioning growers on USDA risk management programs and provide a step by step guide to enrollment in crop insurance programs. The goals of this webinar are to improve understanding of risk management among organic producers and those seeking to transition to organic. This project supports RMA’s goal of increasing access to risk management practices and programs for underserved audiences.

About the Presenter

Michael Stein is an attorney and scientist who is passionate about organic and sustainable agriculture. He has focused his career on implementing legal and policy tools to address the environmental, health, and economic impacts of our food system. He first started working to protect the health and wealth of our natural resources with Midwest Environmental Advocates, assisting family farmers in protecting their homes and communities from the negative environmental impacts of large-scale industrial agriculture. While at Harvard Law School’s Food Law and Policy Clinic, he focused on the environmental and public health impacts of food waste, and also worked to address food sovereignty issues faced by Native American communities.

The webinar will be conducted using Webex. To try a test session, go here.

Funding for this webinar is provided by the USDA Risk Management Agency.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 25291

Hail Can Happen! Insurance Options for Organic Farms

mer, 2018/04/25 - 16:35

Join eOrganic and the Organic Farming Research Foundation for a webinar about insurance options for organic farm, which takes place on February 6, 2019 at 11AM Pacific Time (12PM Mountain, 1PM Central, 2PM Eastern Time). The webinar is free and open to the public, and advance registration is required.

Register now at https://oregonstate.webex.com/oregonstate/onstage/g.php?MTID=e456f6d6fbc634065de951fe137bd33f7

About the Webinar

Managing risk is of utmost importance for all farmers, especially organic producers. This webinar will educate organic and transitioning growers on USDA risk management programs and provide a step by step guide to enrollment in crop insurance programs. The goals of this webinar are to improve understanding of risk management among organic producers and those seeking to transition to organic. This project supports RMA’s goal of increasing access to risk management practices and programs for underserved audiences.

About the Presenter

Michael Stein is an attorney and scientist who is passionate about organic and sustainable agriculture. He has focused his career on implementing legal and policy tools to address the environmental, health, and economic impacts of our food system. He first started working to protect the health and wealth of our natural resources with Midwest Environmental Advocates, assisting family farmers in protecting their homes and communities from the negative environmental impacts of large-scale industrial agriculture. While at Harvard Law School’s Food Law and Policy Clinic, he focused on the environmental and public health impacts of food waste, and also worked to address food sovereignty issues faced by Native American communities.

The webinar will be conducted using Webex. To try a test session, go here.

Funding for this webinar is provided by the USDA Risk Management Agency.

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 25291

Lower Financial Risk by Increasing Soil Health

mer, 2018/04/25 - 16:26

Join eOrganic and the Organic Farming Research Foundation for a webinar on how to lower your financial risk by increasing soil health by Mark Schonbeck of the Virginia Association for Biological Farming. The webinar is free and open to the public, and takes place on January 16, 2019 at 11 AM Pacific, 12PM Mountain, 1PM Central, 2PM Eastern Time. Advance registration is required.

Register now at https://oregonstate.webex.com/oregonstate/onstage/g.php?MTID=e57ae287484...

 

About the Webinar

Building soil health through improved crop rotations, cover cropping, organic soil amendments, and other organic practices can improve yield stability and reduce risks of losses to drought, temperature extremes, weeds, and other stresses. Farmer experience and research have shown that healthy soil is the best form of crop insurance. Based on organic agricultural research and producer experience, this webinar will explore how several key soil health practices can reduce risks during organic transition and organic production.

About the Presenter

Mark Schonbeck has worked for 31 years as a researcher, consultant, and educator in sustainable and organic agriculture. He has participated in on-farm research into mulching, cover crops, minimum tillage, and nutrient management for organic vegetables. For many years, he has written for the Virginia Association for Biological Farming newsletter and served as their policy liason to the National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition. He has also participated in different research projects to analyze, evaluate and improve federally funded organic and sustainable agriculture programs. In addition, Mark offers individual consulting in soil test interpretation, soil quality and nutrient management, crop rotation, cover cropping, and weed management.

The webinar will be conducted using Webex. To try a test session, go here.

Funding for this webinar is provided by the USDA Risk Management Agency.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 25289

Lower Financial Risk by Increasing Soil Health

mer, 2018/04/25 - 16:26

Join eOrganic and the Organic Farming Research Foundation for a webinar on how to lower your financial risk by increasing soil health by Mark Schonbeck of the Virginia Association for Biological Farming. The webinar is free and open to the public, and takes place on January 16, 2019 at 11 AM Pacific, 12PM Mountain, 1PM Central, 2PM Eastern Time. Advance registration is required.

Register now at https://oregonstate.webex.com/oregonstate/onstage/g.php?MTID=e57ae287484...

 

About the Webinar

Building soil health through improved crop rotations, cover cropping, organic soil amendments, and other organic practices can improve yield stability and reduce risks of losses to drought, temperature extremes, weeds, and other stresses. Farmer experience and research have shown that healthy soil is the best form of crop insurance. Based on organic agricultural research and producer experience, this webinar will explore how several key soil health practices can reduce risks during organic transition and organic production.

About the Presenter

Mark Schonbeck has worked for 31 years as a researcher, consultant, and educator in sustainable and organic agriculture. He has participated in on-farm research into mulching, cover crops, minimum tillage, and nutrient management for organic vegetables. For many years, he has written for the Virginia Association for Biological Farming newsletter and served as their policy liason to the National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition. He has also participated in different research projects to analyze, evaluate and improve federally funded organic and sustainable agriculture programs. In addition, Mark offers individual consulting in soil test interpretation, soil quality and nutrient management, crop rotation, cover cropping, and weed management.

The webinar will be conducted using Webex. To try a test session, go here.

Funding for this webinar is provided by the USDA Risk Management Agency.

 

This is an eOrganic article and was reviewed for compliance with National Organic Program regulations by members of the eOrganic community. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification.

eOrganic 25289

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